At the age of 32 y children with poor self control were less fi nancially

At the age of 32 y children with poor self control

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At the age of 32 y, children with poor self-control were less fi nancially planful. Compared with other 32-y-olds, they were less likely to save and had acquired fewer fi nancial building blocks for the future (e.g., home ownership, investment funds, retirement plans). Children with poor self-control were also struggling fi - nancially in adulthood. They reported more money-management dif fi culties and had accumulated more credit problems (Table 1). Poor self-control in childhood was a stronger predictor of these fi nancial dif fi culties than study members social class origins and IQ. This longitudinal link between self-control and self-reported fi nancial problems was veri fi ed by informants who knew them well. As adults, children with poor self-control were rated by their informants as poor money managers (Table 1). Predicting Crime. We obtained records of study members court convictions at all courts in New Zealand and Australia by searching the central computer systems of the New Zealand Police; 24% of the study members had been convicted of a crime Table 1. Does poor self-control in childhood lead to poor health, wealth-related problems, and criminal convictions in adulthood? Model 1: Baseline bivariate associations Model 2: Co-occurring childhood risk factors hypothesis Adult outcomes and predictors Coef fi cient 95% CI/SE P Coef fi cient 95% CI/SE P Health Physical health index* Low family SES 1.218 1.127 1.316 < 0.001 1.154 1.058 1.258 0.001 Low IQ 1.224 1.133 1.323 < 0.001 1.092 0.993 1.20 0.069 Low self-control 1.196 1.113 1.285 < 0.001 1.111 1.020 1.209 0.016 Recurrent depression Low family SES 1.038 0.876 1.229 0.667 0.955 0.790 1.153 0.629 Low IQ 1.232 1.031 1.470 0.022 1.208 0.978 1.493 0.080 Low self-control 1.187 0.944 1.419 0.059 1.099 0.849 1.352 0.369 Substance dependence index* Low family SES 1.343 1.184 1.523 < 0.001 1.281 1.116 1.470 < 0.001 Low IQ 1.218 1.074 1.382 0.002 1.012 0.870 1.177 0.880 Low self-control 1.299 1.156 1.460 < 0.001 1.186 1.038 1.355 0.012 Informant-reported substance problems Low family SES 0.118 0.033 < 0.001 0.076 0.036 0.033 Low IQ 0.081 0.034 0.014 0.026 0.041 0.507 Low self-control 0.178 0.035 < 0.001 0.169 0.039 < 0.001 Wealth SES Low family SES 0.266 0.033 < 0.001 0.124 0.034 < 0.001 Low IQ 0.400 0.033 < 0.001 0.312 0.039 < 0.001 Low self-control 0.263 0.035 < 0.001 0.082 0.038 0.023 Income Low family SES 0.214 0.032 < 0.001 0.107 0.034 0.002 Low IQ 0.291 0.033 < 0.001 0.199 0.039 < 0.001 Low self-control 0.238 0.034 < 0.001 0.112 0.038 0.002 Single-parent child rearing § Low family SES 1.301 1.067 1.586 0.009 1.140 0.909 1.430 0.255 Low IQ 1.395 1.117 1.741 0.003 1.126 0.869 1.458 0.369 Low self-control 1.633 1.304 2.046 < 0.001 1.479 1.147 1.908 0.003 Financial planfulness Low family SES 0.151 0.032 < 0.001 0.090 0.036 0.011 Low IQ 0.160 0.034 < 0.001 0.059 0.040 0.124 Low self-control 0.195 0.034 < 0.001 0.141 0.039 < 0.001 Financial struggles Low family SES 0.095 0.033 0.003 0.077 0.036 0.032 Low IQ 0.029 0.035 0.369 0.068 0.041 0.078 Low self-control 0.152 0.035 < 0.001 0.156 0.039 < 0.001 Informant-reported fi nancial problems Low family SES 0.131 0.033 < 0.001 0.035 0.036 0.317 Low IQ 0.192 0.035 < 0.001 0.077 0.041 0.045 Low self-control 0.274 0.034 < 0.001 0.230 0.039 < 0.001 Public safety Criminal conviction Low family SES 1.578 1.337 1.863 < 0.001 1.373 1.140 1.654 0.001 Low IQ 1.431 1.218 1.680 < 0.001 0.967 0.792 1.179 0.737 Low self-control 1.830 1.559 2.148 < 0.001 1.714 1.425 2.063 < 0.001 Additional details are provided in SI Appendix , Table S1 . SES, socioeconomic status.
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