ALFRED BINET 1900 House was broken into went to trial reports were not accurate

Alfred binet 1900 house was broken into went to trial

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This pushed psychiatrists into the legal arena. ALFRED BINET (1900) House was broken into, went to trial, reports were not accurate, memory was not as good as he perceived it to be. Experiments with children, asking leading questions Results: testimony of children highly susceptible to suggestibility, will agree if asked direct questions Free recall is more accurate for children, very important in regard to eye witness memory 1. Error of Imagination 2. Logical error JAMES CATTELL (1895) First experiments in “psychology of testimony” (weather recall, apple seeds) - In what direction do the seeds of an apple point? - Resistance from legal professionals - Do horses in the field stand with head or tail to the wind? - What was the weather one week ago today? - How confident are you? (1= not at all, 2= somewhat, 3= I am right) NORTH AMERICA HUGO MŪNSTERBERG (1906): *THE FATHER OF FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY* Challenged the effectiveness of eyewitness testimony On the Witness Stand” (1908) pushed psychologists into legal arena Founder of Forensic Psychology JOHN HENRY WIGMORE (1909) Critique of Munsterberg Relationship between law and psychology was untenable Experimental psychology lacked enough knowledge to be practical Effectively stalled the progress of forensic psychology 1913 Psychological services in prison 1917 Martson creates polygraph
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Psychological testing in law enforcement screening 1921 State v. Driver- First time psychologist’s testimony accepted in court in US. 1918-1939 Quiet period between WW1 and WW2 due to avoidance by legal community- focus on mental abilities 1940 People v. Hawthorne Murder trial in Michigan Trial court refused to qualify a psychologist as an expert witness on mental state Acknowledges that psychologists can assess mental state, not only psychiatrists Supreme court overruled the decision- standard for determining expert status (expertise, not medical degree) 1954 Brown v. Board of Education First time psychological research was referenced to by a judge in supreme court decision Challenge to eliminate the segregation of the classrooms based on black/white Reference to experimental results from the social sciences re: segregation (Kenneth Clarke doll studies): Researcher brought kids in, different colour dolls, asked questions like... which doll would you like to be your friend?... Black children majority of the time chose the white dolls. 1954 APA and AMA joint statement that only physicians “qualified” to testify in the field of mental illness. 1962 Jenkins v. United States- clarification of standards for expert testimony Must look closely at credentials of proposed expert before ruling on status Qualified psychologists begin to testify routinely 1964 Eysenck published ‘Crime and personality’- the first testable theory of criminal behavior 1968 Journals and Societies emerge
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1968 American Psychology - Law Society 1974 First joint Law and Psychology program 1974 Criminal Justice and Behavior published 1977 Law and Human Behavior published
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