a. It was determined that colonial areas would be put under the “tutelage” of one of the four major powers and would be encouraged to advance toward independence b. To get other countries to agree to the idea of the League of Nations, Wilson approved territorial settlements that violated his own principles 4. Germany oa. France was given the German territory of Alsace-Lorraine and was given the exclusive right to work the coal mine of the Saar for fifteen years o Germany, west of the Rhine River and fifty kilometers to the east of it was to be a demilitarized zone b. Brittany and the United Stated agreed to help France in the case of a future German attack c. Disarmament of Germany -its army was limited to 100,000 men -its fleet was reduced to a coastal defense force-it was forbidden to have warplanes, submarines, tanks, heavy artillery, or poison gas
5. The East
6. Reparations a. Initially, the Germans promised to pay compensation for all damages “done to civilian populations of the Allies and their property” -The Americans determined this would be roughly between $15 and $25 billion-France and Britain, worried about the debt they owed to the United States, were eagerto have Germany pay for the full cost of the war including pensions to survivors and dependents b. There was general agreement that Germany would not be able to pay for the cost; therefore,Germany was to pay $5 billion annually until 1921 when a final figure would be set and Germany would have 30 years to pay it c. This fell under the notorious “war guilt clause” of the treaty o Germany bitterly resented paying reparations d. The Social Democrats and the Catholic Center Party formed a new government and their representatives signed the treaty -These parties formed the backbone of the new Weimar government that ruled Germany until 1933-The Weimar government never overcame the stigma of having signed the Treaty of VersaillesF. World War I and Colonial Empires1. Overview a. Liberals and idealists expected the conference to work out a new kind of international order in a new and better way b. The notion of “a peace without victors” was supposed to be the ideal o It was determined that Russia and Germany would be excluded from negotiating the settlement and that they would be presented with a treaty and compelled to accept it.