● Formed through experience ● Categorize new objects based on your prototypes (what you basically think of first for a particular category) ● The further away the object (new tree) is away from your prototype, the less likely it is to be categorized as the prototype (tree) ● STUDY: ○ More people were able to categorize a robin as a bird compared to a penguin as a bird ○ More typical category members which are closer to the prototype are categorized quickly and easily than atypical category members ● Some exceptions to this theory include: ○ If you were asked to write down your prototypical food and then asked the same question a week later, you may give different answers ○ Should expect it to be stable over time, according to the prototype theory Exemplar Theory ● Exemplar Theory: Instead of storing only one average category prototype, you store your entire lifetime worth of experiences ○ Instead of remembering just one prototype of dog to compare with, the theory suggests that you remember every dog you have ever met and created a mild phobia through classical conditioning ○ Each past instances of a category membership is called an exemplar ○ Study: ■ A robin is a bird is faster, but slower when a penguin is a bird ■ Many more robin exemplars in your library compared to penguins ○ Dermatologists were asked to observe a series of slides of skin disorders ■ Following a two week delay, they returned to a diagnosis of second series of slides
■ Experts did not know that some of the disorder were repeated in the second sessions but using different slides ■ Questions was: would the inclusion of a single exemplar two weeks earlier improve their accuracy ●
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 3 pages?
- Winter '14