These include economic instruments bans on certain

  • No School
  • AA 1
  • 200

This preview shows page 32 - 34 out of 200 pages.

These include economic instruments, bans on certain substances, environmental labelling, voluntary agreements and product design guidelines (IPP 2014 ). 1.2 Principles for the Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Products To facilitate the assessment of environmental impact, the fi nal consumption of an environment/place has been categorized by the European Commission Communi- cation on Integrated Product Policy into product categories. The classi fi cation may divide the total consumption of products into categories based on any of the said methods. The major divisions may be based on the functional areas of consumption, such as transportation, clothing, health care and recreation. The second method may be based on consumption domains, where one category forms a contributing factor to the other category (e.g. transportation being a contributing factor to health care or 24 S. Radhakrishnan
Image of page 32
recreation). The third method may be on the basis of product groupings that are subclasses of the consumption domains (e.g. transportation may be further divided into subclasses such as rail, road, ship and air). The other classi fi cation can be as a homogenous product group or individual product groups, such as medium-range diesel cars (homogenous) and a speci fi c diesel car (individual). Further two approaches have been identi fi ed by the organization to undertake studies on environmental assessment. The bottom-up approach starts with the selection of a product, followed by the completion of a lifecycle assessment (LCA). The top-down approach begins with input and output data compiled by statistical agencies, followed by the production and consumption analysis of an economy. The most important environmental impact categories used in most of the studies were global warming, acidi fi cation, photochemical ozone formation and eutrophication. Apart from these categories, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, eco-toxicity, land use and depletion of nonrenewable resources were taken into account (Tukker et al. 2006 ). It is dif fi cult to measure and express a product s overall environmental impact, so the LCA is a useful tool for such use. The fi rst step is to select a functional unit (e.g. a product) and the next process is to set boundaries for the analysis. The classic LCA is carried out on a cradle-to-grave basis, which assesses the environmental impact of extracting and gathering raw materials, assembling the product, trans- porting it to the user and disposing or recycling at the end of the product s useful life. The next step is to conduct a lifecycle inventory, which involves the tracking of every single part of the product back to its raw material origins. The lifecycle inventory generates large amounts of data, which have to be grouped into different categories (11 or 12 categories) representing the particular impacts on humans, eco- systems or resources. Finally, the LCA report quanti fi es the total impact of the product on each category. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has a set of processes that govern a LCA. According to the ISO, the analysis must
Image of page 33
Image of page 34

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 200 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • Corporate social responsibility, CSR Practices

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors