China adopted Marxist-Leninist policies of reform in economic development, believing in collective ownership over the means of production ● Economic modernization would move rural China beyond small family farming ● Timeline of agricultural movements : ○ 1950-1952, land redistribution - land possession shifted to village peasants ○ 1952-1955, primary cooperatives - pooling resources under unified management ○ 1956-1957, advanced cooperatives - abolished rents for land shares and capital ○ 1958-1962, communes (Great Leap Forward) - eliminated private markets ○ 1966-1976, Cultural Revolution ○ 1978, household responsibility system ● Mutual aid teams formed in supporting land ownership, outputs, and means of production ● Primary cooperatives paid work from individual contributions to land and labor assets ● Payment for advanced cooperatives was based on ‘work points’ regarding performance ● Collectivization moved China beyond small family farming, while still maintaining the support of the peasantry ● Great Leap Forward : economic and social campaign in the late 1950s that aimed to rapidly transform Chinese landscape into modern, communist society ● Actions of the Great Leap Forward aimed to parallel western industrialization production
● People’s communes combined advanced co-ops and transferred production to a 60% ‘free supply’ and 40% labor output system ● Low productivity, caused by poor management and exaggerating output levels, caused a great famine and severe death consequences to populations ● Retreat against communes : ○ Raising price and decreasing quotas for grain procurement ○ Cutting prices of farm machinery ○ Sending youth to villages for skills training ○ Encouraging smaller-scale enterprises Week 4: Hukou System and its Impact on Rural Life ● Between 1958 and 1978, internal migration was strictly forbidden ● Hukou system : An internal passport used for household registration, tracking details of citizens and population information; must register in-region for government services ● Rationale behind Hukou : ○ Stability and order ○ Farmers filtering produce for urban residences ○ Agriculture segue into industrialization ● Urban development created spillover effects on rural areas, including heavy burdens on production through the 20th century ● Tremendous income gaps exist between urban and rural regions, where the former is considered superior in residency ● 31 of 34 provinces have cancelled the division of urban and rural areas under the Hukou system, creating a unified household registration ● Rural migrant worker conditions : ○ Missing social security ○ Unprotected labor rights ○ Leaving family behind Week 5: China under Reform ● The start of the reform era shifted away from leftist philosophy and Cultural Revolution policies set under Mao ● Necessary institutions were in place (local, risk-sharing co-ops, etc.) ● Economic growth was prioritized, using a outward-looking and experimental approach ● Policy developments in reform era: ○ Shift from agricultural collectives to household farms ○ Expansion of township and village enterprises (TVEs) from economic zones ○ Increased autonomy of state-owned enterprises (SOEs)
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- Fall '11
- Mao Zedong, People's Republic of China, Deng Xiaoping, Cultural Revolution