China adopted Marxist Leninist policies of reform in economic development

China adopted marxist leninist policies of reform in

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China adopted Marxist-Leninist policies of reform in economic development, believing in collective ownership over the means of production Economic modernization would move rural China beyond small family farming Timeline of agricultural movements : 1950-1952, land redistribution - land possession shifted to village peasants 1952-1955, primary cooperatives - pooling resources under unified management 1956-1957, advanced cooperatives - abolished rents for land shares and capital 1958-1962, communes (Great Leap Forward) - eliminated private markets 1966-1976, Cultural Revolution 1978, household responsibility system Mutual aid teams formed in supporting land ownership, outputs, and means of production Primary cooperatives paid work from individual contributions to land and labor assets Payment for advanced cooperatives was based on ‘work points’ regarding performance Collectivization moved China beyond small family farming, while still maintaining the support of the peasantry Great Leap Forward : economic and social campaign in the late 1950s that aimed to rapidly transform Chinese landscape into modern, communist society Actions of the Great Leap Forward aimed to parallel western industrialization production
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People’s communes combined advanced co-ops and transferred production to a 60% ‘free supply’ and 40% labor output system Low productivity, caused by poor management and exaggerating output levels, caused a great famine and severe death consequences to populations Retreat against communes : Raising price and decreasing quotas for grain procurement Cutting prices of farm machinery Sending youth to villages for skills training Encouraging smaller-scale enterprises Week 4: Hukou System and its Impact on Rural Life Between 1958 and 1978, internal migration was strictly forbidden Hukou system : An internal passport used for household registration, tracking details of citizens and population information; must register in-region for government services Rationale behind Hukou : Stability and order Farmers filtering produce for urban residences Agriculture segue into industrialization Urban development created spillover effects on rural areas, including heavy burdens on production through the 20th century Tremendous income gaps exist between urban and rural regions, where the former is considered superior in residency 31 of 34 provinces have cancelled the division of urban and rural areas under the Hukou system, creating a unified household registration Rural migrant worker conditions : Missing social security Unprotected labor rights Leaving family behind Week 5: China under Reform The start of the reform era shifted away from leftist philosophy and Cultural Revolution policies set under Mao Necessary institutions were in place (local, risk-sharing co-ops, etc.) Economic growth was prioritized, using a outward-looking and experimental approach Policy developments in reform era: Shift from agricultural collectives to household farms Expansion of township and village enterprises (TVEs) from economic zones Increased autonomy of state-owned enterprises (SOEs)
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