The first principle of Scientific Management is scientific study of the work involved. "Scientific study" of the work, involves studying and observing the work to determine the most efficient way to accomplish it. The second principle of Scientific Management is selecting the workers in a scientific manner for the kind of work to be done. Instead of allowing workers to select their own work, the workers are selected by management for the work to be done. The third principles of Scientific Management is train the workers in the most efficient methods for doing their work, and give them incentives for producing efficiently. The fourth principle of Scientific Management is dividing the work between managers and workers Managers would determine the best way to do the work and would then tell the workers exactly what to do. Frederick Winslow Taylor (father of Scientific Management) put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Scientific Management focused on the bottom of the organization, the manual work itself. His Theory argued the following: Workers do not naturally enjoy work and so need close supervision and control Therefore managers should break down production into a series of small tasks Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task. Workers are then paid according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay. As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximize their productivity. Taylor’s methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased productivity levels and lower unit costs. The most notably advocate was Henry Ford who used them to design the first ever production line, making Ford cars. This was the start of the era of mass production. Taylor’s approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management style (managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) and Macgregor’s Theory X approach to workers (workers are viewed as lazy and wish to avoid responsibility). However workers soon came to dislike Taylor’s approach as they were only given boring, repetitive tasks to carry out and were being treated little better than human machines. Firms could also afford to lay off workers as productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of industrial action by dissatisfied workers. Henry Gantt - developed the Gantt chart, which breaks a project down into its activities and shows the estimated time requirements for the individual activities. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth – (known for studying job motion) believed in Scientific Management and in there being only one best way to do any job. They were later described in a book and movie called Cheaper By the Dozen.
- Winter '12
- Management, Henri Fayol, scientific management