The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in

The grouping of machines according to the process has

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The grouping of machines according to the process has to be done keeping in mind the following principles: a) The distance between departments should be as short as possible for avoiding long distance movement of materials b) The departments should be in sequence of operations c) The arrangement should be convenient for inspection and supervision.
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Figure 3 Process-focused layout Advantages of a process layout when compared to a product layout include: Resources are general purpose and thus less expensive; It is more flexible as it is less vulnerable to changes in products; Equipment utilization is higher as processes are used across a high variety of products; Employee supervision can be more specialized which is important due to the high skill factor of personnel. The process layout also has some distinct disadvantages including: Processing rates tend to be slower; Production time is lost due to set-up due to frequent product changeover; High inventory required to keep workstations busy; Lead times tend to be long and variable; Too much material handling; The numerous routings and flows across the shop floor necessitate the use of simple carrying devices such as carts; Production planning and control is more difficult; Therefore, the major challenge of using a process layout is to locate centres in such a way to minimize the jumbled flow across the shop floor. Product layout In a product layout, processes, workstations and departments are arranged in a line as illustrated in Fig. 4. The arrangement of these is determined by what resources are required to manufacture the product, which will be detailed in the process plans. This makes the location of centres easy as the sequence of operations will also be as detailed in the process plans. Although product layouts may be in a straight line, this is not necessarily always the case, and they are often referred to as production lines. They typically employ equipment dedicated to a particular task and each line deals with
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only one product or product family. As such, they are employed for high volume, low-variety manufacture. Product layouts have a number of distinct advantages over process layouts for high volume production. These include: Low work-in-progress inventory; Minimizing material handling; Minimizing lost production time due to changeovers; Ease of production planning and control. High production rates; However, there are also a number of disadvantages to consider for product layouts. These are: As product designs change, so too must the product layout. This is a problem for organizations that manufacture products with short life cycles; As the layout is based on the product it is less flexible; Process breakdowns can halt an entire production line; The capacity of the line is determined by the bottleneck work centre; Poor use of resources for low-volume products. The main objective of employing a product layout is to organize the workstations in such a manner as to achieve the required output with the minimum resources. CAT ONE 19 TH JUNE 2019 Figure 4 Product-focused layout
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  • Spring '14
  • Onyancha PhD

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