Archaeology-of-the-Greek-Bronze-Age.docx

Longest recorded occupational sequence from on

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Longest recorded occupational sequence from on location in Greece - Absolute date found by c14 (carbon dating) - Excavation: Vertical exploration (digging) - Stratigraphy - Divided into smaller units o Sample areas o Really difficult to record info from large cave - Largest Trench is F/A, 11 meters deep o Not a result of continuous occupation, but use of seasonal settlement Because early humans were hunter gatherers (nomadic) - Important feature, tremendous amounts of bio remains (biofacts) o Shows what people ate - Three Paleolithic Phases o 1. 70% equid, 30% red deer o 2. 40% equid, 25% red deer, 25% bovid, 10% caprine o 3. 70% red deer, 20% equid, 10% pig - Earliest phases, large herds lived near cave, making excellent hunting o Used cave as hunting camp - Few plant remains o 11 000 BC: lentils, pistachios, almonds o After 11 000 BC: wild oats and barley - Few fish and shellfish - Stone Tools o Ground Stone o Chipped Stone - In the cave
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o Most tools are ground stone or chipped stone o Tools constructed from obsidian Evidence of trade since obsidian comes from the Cyclades Trade network between mainland and island - Types of tools o Bladelets (cutting tools) o Scrapers (prepping animal hides Mesolithic - Phase 1 o 70% red deer, 30% pig (disappearance of wild ass and cows) o Oats, barley, pistachios (indicates change in climate, open forests) - Phase 2 o Fish bones starting to appear, coming from tuna (fishing in deep sea, sea level rising) o More obsidian - Microliths (smaller chip stone tools) - Handstones (people starting to make bread) - Saronic Gulf - First burial at Franchthi and Greece is from Mesolithic period o Contracted burial o Shallow pit, covered by stones o Implies concern for ritual burial o Dents in skull, died from blows to the head, also had malaria o 7 other burials o Additional human remains From adults, children and babies Burials evidence that they started yearlong occupation of Franchthi caves Comparison of Franchthi from Paleolithic to Mesolithic - Both periods are unconnected - Coastal location - Marine resources and maritime network - Ritualized burial Damnoni Caves, Crete Paleolithic - Soil is acidic, destroyed organic remains o No radio carbon dating, only date through comparison - Closest evidence of Archeulean tools is North Afrcia o Evidence of early sea faring Mesolithic - Microliths discovered - Obsidian tools o Individuals participating in large exchanges
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o Down the line exchange - Fairly large interaction sphere Archeulean Tools (Paleolithic) - Handaxes - Axes made of Quartz found on Crete - These are found in North Africa and Europe as well - Dated Early Paleolithic period - Stone tool industry always associated with Homo Erectus (Archeulean) Neolithic Crete and Cyclades Crete - Simple Stereotypes - Egalitarian Society (no social hierarchy) - New Interpretations o Household Economy o Specialization o Exchange o Dynamic Change Knossos - Minoan Palace - Neolithic Society Located - Hamlet (10-100 people) - Village (100-1000) - Individual Houses (nuclear family – 2 parents and children) Housing of Neolithic Crete - Housing varies, but generalizations o
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  • Winter '13
  • GeorgeHarrison
  • Stone, Neolithic Period, Ground stone, EH IIA

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