R8. International Negotiating Styles - Foster - ch 8 pp 264 - 293.pdf

Intemational negohating styles 287 isfy the chinese

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Intemational NegoHating Styles 287 isfy the Chinese need for "s pedal auention." Although he probably hadn't prepared for this possibility ahead of time nor even brought up the alternate equipment as part of the original deal, he realized when the situadon arose that this creative solution couId get him what he wanted in return. He was flexible, resourceful, and firm, refusing to be put~off and also resisting any temptation to react unconstructively (for which read "em.otionalIy," or with attacking behavior, in this case). He was, aboye all, tenacious, willing to look beyond his own position in or- der to satisfY it. The Propensity to Take Risks Closely allied with time value differences, are differences in attitudes toward risk. This category is closely allied to Hofstede's uncertainty- avoidance dimensiono Cultures can be. highIy risk-avoidant: slow to make decisions, apparent1y always in need of more information, de- pendent on rules and regulations, heavily bureaucratic and hierar~ chica!. On the opposite side, cultures can be very low risk-avoidant: entrepreneurial, making quick decisions based on litde information, tending to disregard or find ways to work through 01" around hier~ archy and bureaucracy. At the negotiating tableo more conservative cultures will probably have an intricate dedsion-making system. Certainly many individuals will probably be required to approve a deal. More risk-taking cultures are more likely to empower individuaIs to make dedsions. We've seen tbat the United States has a fairly highly risk~taking propensity, al- though this quality is not necéssarily Western: many European cultures are remarkably conservative in their approach to risk. (Greece is one' of the most conservative of all cultures in this dimension.) Certain Asian cultures, such as the dynamic dragons, are also very risk-oriented. Risk is a key issue in China and plays a unique role: risky situations may be';! used to "shame" the other side. Risk~avoidant behavior in th~ West can take the form of casting "guilt" on the other side. (This is not uncom~ mon in Germany, for example.) .Interestingly, a high level of uncertainty over the future can, in a strange twist, actually promote a high level of comfort with risk taking. In such cultures, the thinking goes this way: "It might be foolish to plan excessively for the future, because we áre not ultimately in charge ofit. Therefore, since the consequences of today's acdons are mitigated by the unknowable, by sorne other force, let's let the dice roIl; we're not responsible." This ambiguous and apparent1y contradictory relationship with fate and the future explains the often surprising degree ofrisk tak-
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288 Successfullntemational Communication ing we sometimes see in basically conservative cultures, the making of' serious choices for quite unstudied or unexplained reasons. The Japa~':: nese can, for example, require great amounts of information before"" making a move, yet be dedicated to making such moves for re~ons that: cannot necessarily be substantiated with data. They may need reams of~i details in order
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