Theory applied to explanations of phenomena that are not proper theories in the

# Theory applied to explanations of phenomena that are

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Theory: applied to explanations of phenomena that are not proper theories in the scientific sense, they generate testable predictions. If it doesn’t generate predictions that can be tested, it isn’t really a theory. Process of Scientific Investigation 3
1. Generate or adopt a theory - study existing information about the world, either construct a general set of ideas about the world works, or adopt an existing theory and begin generating deductive predictions based on it 2. Generate a testable hypothesis - a set of testable statements, makes specific predictions about the relationship between variables in the theory 3. Choose a research method - needs to be appropriate, all scientists to collect data about how the events of the world unfold and whether they are in line with the hypothesis 4. Collect data 5. Analyze data- determine whether the hypothesis has been supported or not 6. Report findings- allows other researches to perform their own, possibly different, analyses on the data. 7. Revise theories- needs to account for new information Reliability: ability of any test to give the same output when the same input is given Validity- the ability of the test to measure what we intended it to measure Ways to Collect Data Case Studies : detailed examination of one particular individual - Can provide direct evidence of a theory when studying an unusual phenomena, doesn’t manipulate - Problems- not able to compare to others (or general population), subjective if a researcher expects to find support for a specific theory Correlational Studies: looking at existing relationships between pairs of variables - Measured by the strength and direction of the relationship - Positive correlation- as the value of one variable increases, so does the other - Negative correlation- as the value of one variable increases, the other variable decreases in value - Zero correlation- no relationship between variables - Described using a correlation coefficient ranges from -1.00 [perfect negative correlation] to +1.00 [perfect positive correlation] o +/- refers to direction of the relationship o The strength of the relationship is indicated by how far the number is from zero - Problems- can’t tell cause and effect relationships because it only shows relationship between two variables; third party variables; difficult to explain rational of observed behaviours Experiments: the procedure of choice used to systematically study a problem in psychology 4
- Experimenter manipulates one or more variables and measures the change in that variable - Allows for detection of cause and effect relationships - Problems- setting can be artificial, results might not translate to natural settings, ethical and moral constraints - Binary variables: only two possible values (on/off, dead/alive) - Constant: only one possible value - Independent variable: what the researcher will manipulate - Dependent variable: measured by the experimenter to see if manipulation had any effect - Confounding variables: variable the researcher did not manipulate (gender, time of

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• Winter '14