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compensate in approximately 24 hours. The lungs remove 30Liters of carbonic acid from venous blood on a daily basis.b.Describe the normal pH balance, the source and type of metabolic acids, and their clinical significance. Normal pH- 7.35-7.45Metabolic AcidsoCarbonic Acid- aerobic (with oxygen) metabolism- actual byproduct ofaerobic metabolism. created when carbon dioxide (CO2) is dissolved in water (H2O), resulting in the chemical formula H2CO3. When the acid dissociates, or gives up a hydrogen ion, the resulting molecule is called a bicarbonate ion.oLactic Acid- byproduct of anaerobic (no oxygen) metabolism of glucose. This acid can build up, too. It might happen when you're exercising intensely. Big drops in blood pressure, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and an overwhelming infection can also cause it.
oSulfuric Acid- from the oxidation of sulfur containing amino acids. Nonvolatile, strong acid. Results from the oxidation of sulfur containing amino acids.oPhosphoric Acid- from the metabolism of phosphoproteins and ribonucleotides which are used as an energy source. It works with calcium to form strong bones and teeth. It also helps support kidney function and the way your body uses and stores energy. Phosphorus helps your muscles recover after a hard workout. The mineral plays a major role in the body’s growth and is even needed to produce DNA and RNA, the genetic codes of living things.oKetone Bodies- an acid and result from the breakdown of fats. three water-soluble molecules (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and theirspontaneous breakdown product, acetone) that are produced by the liver from fatty acids during periods of low food intake (fasting), carbohydrate restrictive diets, starvation, prolonged intense exercise, or in untreated (or inadequately treated) type 1 diabetes mellitus. These ketone bodies are readily picked up by the extra-hepatic tissues, and converted into acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid cycle and is oxidized in the mitochondria for energy. In the brain, ketone bodies are also used to make acetyl-CoA into long-chain fatty acids.c.Analyze the formula which represents acid base balance and describe the implications for clinical practice. CO2 + H2O H2CO3HcO3- + H+(regulated by lung)(regulated by kidney)Body acid exists in two forms: volatile (Respiratory acids--eliminated as CO2) and nonvolatile (metabolic acidosis --eliminated by the kidney or metabolized by liver). A loss of a hydrogen ion will shift equation to the right. The lungs retain more CO2to convert it into carbonic acid (H2CO3), which will then convert into hydrogen ions and bicarb. A hydrogen ion gain results in the equation shifting left. Lungs are stimulated to increase ventilation in effort to expel more CO2. Carbonic anhydrase either adds water to CO2 and makes H2CO3, or dissociates water from CO2and breaks down H2CO3to CO2and H2O (p.123 & Acid Base Balance notes).