AKA subjects with the best working memory reserves were more likely to choke

# Aka subjects with the best working memory reserves

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AKA subjects with the best working memory reserves were more likely to choke Best way to determine the strategy a person is using to solve a problem is to ask them o When Beilock and Marci DeCaro asked their subjects to solve problems and then describe how they had solved them, they found that in low-pressure situations, the HWM subjects were more likely to arrive at their answer by doing the calculation AKA in first example (first equation) they would subtract 8 from 32 and divide the result by 4 This method always results in the correct answer but places a heavy load on working memory o The LWM subjects were more likely to use a "short cut" that states that if all the numbers are even, the answer is "no" This strategy works for many problems (like the first one) but not for all (Second one) This short-cut strategy places a low load on working memory but doesn't always result in the correct answer Strategy used by the HWM subjects in low-pressure condition is clearly better in terms of accuracy and that's why they score higher in the low-pressure condition
o BUT increasing the pressure increased likelihood that HWM subjects would shift to the short-cut strategy o When they did this, their performance dropped to the level of the LWM subjects & LWM subjects continued using the short-cut strategy bc it didn’t use much working memory & wasn't affected by the pressure To help deal with the complexity of psychology, cognitive psychologists have created models that represent structures and processes involved in cognition THE ROLE OF MODELS IN COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY Models are representations of structures or processes that help us visualize or explain the structure or process STRUCTURAL MODELS Structural models are representations of a physical structure A model can mimic the appearance of an object (e.g plastic model of the brain to show different structures of it) Structures can also be represented by diagrams that don't resemble the structure but instead indicate how different areas are connected (of the brain) Purpose of models is to simplify The plastic model isn't anything like a real brain and doesn't show what is happening inside each structure and how the structures are connected Amount of detail would need to be increased in the model to represent this Even the complex model of the visual system is simplified, because each box represents a complex structure Nonetheless the model helps visualize the layout of a system and how different components are connected and might interact The simplification is actually an advantage bc it makes it easier to study and understand the system Important to know that most structural models are designed to represent the structures involved in specific functions PROCESS MODELS Process models represent the processes that are involved in cognitive mechanisms with boxes usually representing specific processes and arrows indicating connections between processes E.g Broadbent's filter model of attention

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