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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

The objective of refreezing is to stabilize the new

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implemented, if it is to be successful, the new situation needs to be refrozen so that it can be sustained over time. The objective of refreezing is to stabilize the new situation by balancing the driving and restraining forces. The first step in the process of action research involves diagnosis . The change agent begins by gathering information about problems, concerns, and needed changes from members of the organization. This diagnosis is analogous to the physician’s search to find what specifically ails a patient. In action research, the change agent asks questions, interviews employees, reviews records, and listens to the concerns of employees. The information gathered during the diagnostic stage of the action research process is then analyzed . During this step, the change agent synthesizes the gathered information into primary concerns, problem areas, and possible actions. For example, “What problems do people key in on?” and “What patterns do these problems seem to take?” The third step in the action research process is sharing with employees what has been found from the diagnosis and analysis steps. Action research includes extensive involvement of the change targets. The people who will be involved in any change program must be actively involved in determining what the problem is and participating in creating the solution. The employees, with the help of the change agent, develop action plans for bringing about any needed change. The fourth step in the action research process is to take action . During this phase, the “action” part of action research is set in motion. The employees and the change agent carry out the specific actions to correct the problems that have been identified. Consistent with the scientific underpinnings of action research, the change agent evaluates the effectiveness of the action plans. Using the initial data gathered as points of reference, any subsequent changes can be compared and evaluated. Because action research so heavily involves employees in the process, resistance to change is considerably reduced. Once employees have actively participated in the feedback stage, the change process typically takes on a momentum of its own. Change refers to making things different. Innovation is a more specialized kind of change. Innovation is a new idea applied to initiating or improving a product, process, or service. So all innovations involve change, but not all changes necessarily involve new ideas or lead to significant improvements. Innovations in organizations can range from small incremental improvements to radical breakthroughs. The concept of innovation also encompasses new production process technologies, new structures or administrative systems, and new plans or programs pertaining to organizational members.
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Innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures. Innovative organizations tend to encourage experimentation and reward both successes and failures. In too many organizations, however, people are rewarded for the absence of failures rather than for the presence of successes. Such cultures extinguish risk taking and innovation. People will suggest and try new ideas only where they feel such behaviors exact no penalties.
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