Standards specify use of technology in a uniform way

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Standards - Specify use of technology in a uniform way, compulsory Guidelines – similar to standards but not compulsory, more flexible Procedures – Detailed steps, required, sometimes called “practices”, lowest level Baselines – baselines are similar to standards, standards can be developed after the baseline is established Roles and Responsibilities n Senior Management – Has ultimate responsibility for security n Infosec Officer – Has the functional responsibility for security n Owner – Determines the data classification n Custodian - Preserves C.I.A. n User – Performs in accordance with stated policy n Auditor – Examines Security Risk Management Mitigate (reduce) risk to a level acceptable to the organization. Identification of Risk n Actual threat n Possible consequences n Probable frequency n Likely hood of event Risk Analysis n Identification of risks n Benefit - cost justification of counter measures Risk Analysis Terms n Asset – Resource, product, data n Threat – Action with a negative impact n Vulnerability – Absence of control n Safeguard – Control or countermeasure n Exposure Factor % of asset loss caused by threat n Single Loss Expectancy (SLE) – Expected financial loss for single event SLE = Asset Value x Exposure Factor n Annualized Rate of Occurrence (ARO) – represents estimated frequency in which threat will occur within one year n Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE) – Annually expected financial loss ALE = SLE x ARO Risk Analysis n Risk analysis is more comprehensive than a Business Impact Analysis n Quantitative – assigns objective numerical values (dollars) n Qualitative – more intangible values (data) n Quantitative is a major project that requires a detailed process plan Preliminary Security Examination (PSE)
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n Often conducted prior to the quantitative analysis. n PSE helps gather elements that will be needed for actual RA Risk Analysis Steps 1) Estimate of potential loss 2) Analyze potential threats 3) Define the Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE) Categories of Threats n Data Classification – malicious code or logic n Information Warfare – technically oriented terrorism n Personnel – Unauthorized system access n Application / Operational – ineffective security results in data entry errors n Criminal – Physical destruction, or vandalism n Environmental – utility outage, natural disaster n Computer Infrastructure – Hardware failure, program errors n Delayed Processing – reduced productivity, delayed collections processing
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