Furthermore the almost confusing intimate

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Furthermore, the almost confusing intimate relationship between innovation and creativity processes in media products hinders this sector from acquiring innovation processes and systems found in other markets. Actually, in most cases, standardized prototypes that have been successfully tested cannot be resorted to in these markets. The prototype issue of a new magazine or the pilot program for a new TV series can be
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196 RECA tested, but their results can only vaguely forecast the outcome of the launching of the new product. Once in the market, each new magazine issue and each new episode of a series is subject to creativity and innovation; each one is a new project. Based on these findings, perhaps it can be asserted that managing products as projects is quite logical in the media world. This view becomes clearly visible in subsectors such as films (DeFillippi & Arthur, 1998), although it can be applied easily to other audiovisual media, even to print. Ekinsmyth (2002) conducted research on the editing techniques employed in various British magazine firms, concluding that in most cases the organizational and work framework—of their daily activity as well as the launching of new products—seemed to correspond to those used in project management. An example of this type of organization is the hiring of freelance labor on a cyclic and creative basis, an approach that is quite important to many other media products. Besides requiring a project management approach, media product managing and its relentless urge for change demand flexible organizational approaches capable of being used in complex relationships networks. Starkey, Barnatt, and Tempest (2000), analyzing the case of British television firms, referred to the peculiar “latent organizations” that go into action as soon as a key project needs to be launched: In industries where transactions focus upon intermittent projects, networks can best sustain their effectiveness if they are sustained between projects by what we call latent organizations . Latent organizations are forms of organization that bind together configurations of key actors in ongoing relationships that become active/manifest as and when new projects demand. Because latent organizations offer the means of reuniting key actors for specific projects, they constitute an important source of continuity and of guaranteed quality of output in industries ostensibly characterized by impermanence and change. (p. 299) Thatorganizationalflexibilityandtheemergenceofkeyactorconfigurationstotrigger new projects are essential in areas such as the media product field for a number of reasons: (a) the media product is subject to novelty; (b) the substitution of products has taken an increasingpace;and(c)thereisaneedtoworkwitharangeofdifferentandvariedprojects, knowing full well that only a fraction of them will eventually succeed in the market. Only flexible organizations or those with unconventional work structures and frameworks have the chance to survive in an environment with a high degree of uncertainty, risk, and ubiquity of failure, all of which are characteristic drawbacks in the world of content.
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