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Gonadal and Parathyroid Homones Objectives

Hypothalamic gnrh deficiency pituitary fsh deficiency

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hypothalamic GnRH deficiency, pituitary FSH deficiency, ectopic steroid hormone production; Method: chemiluminescence PROGESTERONE – produced by corpus luteum – prepares endometrium for embryo implantation (levels have to be sufficient so endometrial wall can grow so fetus can grow); increased in luteal phase, tumors; decreased in amenorrhea (cessation of menstruation), fetal death (miscarriage), threatened abortion (suspect of having a miscarriage); Clinical Use: patients who’ve had multiple miscarriages; Method: chemiluminescence GnRH – a regulatory hypothalamic hormone; effects LH secretion and FSH secretion; impaired pulse generation of GnRH results in inadequate production of LH and FSH resulting in hypogonadism; Method:
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Gonadal and Parathyroid Hormones – Objectives FREE AND TOTAL CHOLESTEROL – used to diagnose hypogonadism; Testosterone is largely bound w/ only 2 – 3 % of it free; about 50% of it is bound to albumin and about 45% is bound to sex hormone –binding globulin (SHBG) (i.e. by RIA) (levels of SHBG can be affected by medications, disease, steroids, and insulin); the concentrations of binding protein determines the level of total cholesterol but not free testosterone levels during laboratory estimation; Trace Equilibrium Dialysis can be done to determine the levels of free testosterone VITAMIN D – a cholesterol product/ also in dietary sources/ UV light conversion/ primarily synthesized in skin upon exposure to sunlight (90%); diseases of vitamin D metabolism – skeletal moralization of Ca and PO 4 ; Rickets (childhood); osteomalacia (adulthood); development of secondary hyperparathyroidism due to low Ca; also insufficient vitamin D metabolism can cause osteoporosis; increased vitamin D is characteristic of hypercalcemia, decreased vitamin D is characteristic of hypocalcemia 25 HYDROXY VITAMIN D – indicates the adequacy of vitamin D stores w/in the body 1, 25-DIHYDROXY VITAMIN D – in bone, it stimulates terminal differentiation of osteoclast precursors to osteoclasts; it also stimulates osteoblasts to influence osteoclasts
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