Her imprisonment lasted for 21 months liliuokalani

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Her “imprisonment” lasted for 21 months. Lili’uokalani never wrote a word of bitterness or anger about her imprisonment. She passed her days knitting, writing music, praying, preparing an autobiography, and finding great comfort and joy in the singing of a constant companion—her canary. Among her most significant actions during her imprisonment was her translation of the Kumulipo, the Hawaiian Creation Chant. To discredit the claimof pro-annexationists that the Hawaiians were ignorant “savages” prior to the arrival of Europeans and Americans, she chose to relate the Hawaiian story of the creation of the world, the genealogy of the royal Hawaiian line, and, most importantly, the harmonious relationship between Hawaiians and nature (and how that relationship needed to be preserved). Before she died on November 11, 1917, Lili’uokalani offered her estate as a place to care for orphaned and destitute Hawaiian children; this became the Queen Lili’uokalani Children’s Center. In 1897, when the US Congress was debating whether to annex Hawai’i, 38,000 Hawaiians (outof a total population of 40,000 native Hawaiians) sent Congress a petition in opposition to annexation. Annexation seemed doomed, but the war between the United States and Spain, especially its Philippines’ theater of war, reawakened interest in annexation. Hawai’i’s sovereignty passed to the US in August of 1898.In 1978, nineteen years after Hawai’i became the 50thstate, Lydia Aholo, Lili’uokalani’s 100-year-old hanaidaughter, lamented:[Our] land is ravaged by concrete monsters; neither the sea nor the sky is safe from destruction. There is racism – which our ancestors never knew. And neither the young nor the old can lie down by the wayside as Kamehameha decreed. There is nothing Hawaiian left; it is all haolenow. It is no longer known that alohaspoken with indifference is blasphemy, and mahaloin an ungracious mouth is profane. Until we free our people from misconceptions of Hawaiian heritage, we will continue to be victims of an ignoble past.
If US involvement in the Philippines convinced Congress to annex Hawai’i, that American intervention in the Philippines was triggered by events in Cuba, where a repressive Spanish effort to subdue Cuban rebels had made Americans supportive of the Cubans. Then, on February 15, 1898, the suspicious explosion of the USS Maine, in the harbor of Havana, which caused the death at least 250 sailors, led to a demand for revenge against the Spanish, whom the press blamed for the disaster. Thus began the Spanish-American War.At the same time that Cubans rose up against the decaying Spanish Empire, so too did Filipinos.In the same way that a key inspiration for the Cuban Rebellion was José Martí, a writer who would die in battle against the Spanish in 1895, another author, José Rizal, would be a driving force in the Philippines revolt against Spanish domination. Rizal’s execution in 1896 brought into the open a secret organization, known as Katipunan (“The Supreme and Honorable Society of the Children of the

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