Pro that vp à vnpppadv vbpartnp v à vbpart pp à

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{Pro } {that     } VP à     {V NP (PP) (Adv)} {Vb Part NP    } à     {Vb Part} PP  à      Prep NP   Tree diagrams When linguists want to illustrate the structure of a specific sentence, they will sometimes use  labeled brackets, but usually they use a tree diagram because the hierarchical organization of the  sentence more obvious.   We can draw tree diagrams using the phrase structure rules. Tree diagrams “the dog” NP  à  Art N the = article
dog = noun NP (highest node) / \ Art N The NP is higher up then the article and the noun. Tree diagrams (fill in from chalkboard materials) Rules Phrase structure rules help us meet this goal, but they cannot do it alone. They tell us what the constituents of the sentence are but they don’t tell us which words we can plug in for those constituents. Rules Lexical rules: specify which words can be used as nouns, verbs, articles, etc… (p90) but these lexical rules are incomplete so linguists refer to a mental lexicon, which is like a dictionary. Rules We have a set of phrase structure rules and lexical rules that allow us to generate a large number of grammatical sentences and rule out ungrammatical sentences. These phrase structure rules (p92) satisfy only part of the “all and only” criterion because they build only grammatical sentences, they don’t build an ungrammatical sentence. Rules *Boy the Mary saw. The order of the constituents here is – N Art N V The sequence N followed by Art does not occur in our phrase structure rules so we know its ungrammatical. Rules The small boy saw George with a crazy dog recently. S à NP VP NP à Art Adj N VP à V NP PP Adv NP à PN PP à Prep NP NP à Art Adj N Think recursion !!!!!
Rules Rules need to allow for recursion because sometime we have sentences inside of sentences.  Phrase structure rules have no recursive elements and you need to be able to repeat some symbols on  the right side of the arrow.  Rules Example with recursion -  “Cathy thought that Mary helped George.” à  NP VP, NP  à  PN, VP  à  V NP,  NP  à  “that” S, à  NP VP, NP  à  PN, VP  à  V NP, NP  à  PN So, its recursive because we have a sentence, the complement “that Mary helped George” inside  the overall sentence. Rules VP rule allows for recursion- “John said the pledges thought the beer tasted flat.” à  NP VP, NP  à  PN, VP à  V S,  S à  NP VP, NP à  Art N, VP à  V S, S à  NP VP, NP à  Art N, VP à  V Adv This is double recursion because there are two sentences inside the overall sentence.  Rules We need transformational rules in addition to phrase structure rules to explain the fact that 2  sentences with different forms can have the same meaning.   In general, transformational rules are rules that change the order of constituents in the basic  sentence structures specified by phrase structure rules. Rules Think of a transformational rule as breaking off a branch of the tree diagram and attaching it  somewhere else in the structure.

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