At home women organized over one thousand soldiers

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to one-third. At home, women organized over one thousand soldiers’ aid societies, rolled bandages for use in hospitals, and raised millions of dollars to aid injured troops. Nowhere was their impact felt greater than in field hospitals close to the front. Dorothea Dix, who led the effort to provide state hospitals for the mentally ill, was named the first superintendent of women nurses and set rigid guidelines. Clara Barton, working in a pat- ent office, became one of the most admired nurses during the war and, as a result of her experiences, formed the American Red Cross. Resentment of the draft was another divisive issue. In the middle of 1862, Lincoln called for 300,000 volunteer soldiers. Each state was given a quota, and if it couldn’t meet the quota, it had no recourse but to draft men into the state militia. Resistance was so great in some parts of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Indiana that the army had to send in troops to keep order. Tempers flared further over the provision that allowed exemptions for those who could afford to hire a substitute.
© PENN FOSTER, INC. 2018 PAGE 71 THE CIVIL WAR THROUGH RECONSTRUCTION Section 8 In 1863, facing a serious loss of manpower through casualties and expiration of enlist- ments, Congress authorized the government to enforce conscription, resulting in riots in several states. In July 1863, when draft offices were established in New York to bring new Irish workers into the military, mobs formed to resist. At least 74 people were killed over three days. The same troops that had just triumphantly defeated Lee at Gettysburg were deployed to maintain order in New York City. THE SOUTHERN HOMEFRONT After the initial months of the war, the South was plagued with shortages of all kinds. It started with clothing. As the first winter of the war approached, the Confederate army needed wool clothing to keep their soldiers warm. But, the South didn’t produce much wool, and the Northern blockade prevented much wool from being imported from abroad. People all over the South donated their woolens to the cause. Soon families at home were cutting blankets out of carpets. Almost all the shoes worn in the South were manufactured in the North. With the start of the war, shipments of shoes ceased and there would be few new shoes available for years. The first meeting of Confederate and Union forces at Gettysburg arose when Confederates were investigating a supply of shoes in a warehouse. Money was another problem. The South’s decision to print more money to pay for the war simply led to unbelievable increases in price of everyday items. By the end of 1861, the overall rate of inflation was running 12% per month . For example, salt was the only means to preserve meat at this time. Its price increased from 65¢ for a 200-pound bag in May 1861 to $60 per sack only 18 months later. Wheat, flour, cornmeal, meats of all kinds, iron, tin, and copper became too expensive for the ordinary family. Profiteers fre - quently bought up all the goods in a store to sell them back at a higher price. It was an unmanageable situation. Food riots occurred in Mobile, Atlanta, and Richmond. Over the course of the war, inflation in the South caused prices to rise by 9000%.
© PENN FOSTER, INC. 2018

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