classes) and low levels of using clear and effective ways of communicating (specifically Emma, but can apply to every family member). Additionally, this may cause less independence, less en- gagement, lack of commitment and support, little direct expression of feelings and finally less participation in social and recreational activities (Dowling & al., 2009). Therefore, giving the problems and the range of stressors in their family it is understandable that Jimmy’s and Emma’s behaviors to be troubling. Indeed, the family conflicts have affected both children, specifically the emotional and physical deprivation from their father. Indeed, the inconsistent discipline from their parents and their parents poor role modelling has reduced their security and stability which may cause them to act out like their son Jimmy or to isolate themselves emotionally (to protect themselves) like Emma (Kalischuck, Nowatzki, Cardwell, Klein & Solowonjuk, 2006). In fact, more specifically, the father’s constant lies and deceptions about his gambling problems are con- stantly being modelled to their children which may explain certain behavioral issues conducted by Jimmy ( Dowling, Rodda, Lubman , et al. 2014) .
4 FINAL PAPER Assessing the family further, perhaps the father’s culture may be discussed and have a real impact on his perception, behaviors and cognitions. Furthermore, it would be helpful to have information regarding their parenting styles, as culture and parenting style can tell us more about beliefs such as religion, political and personal thoughts. For instance, if both or one parent had more of an authoritarian control over their children this may influence the children’s compliance with roles expectation and with the rules which would often have no flexibility (source). Hence, assuming their father has very strong beliefs about his culture (Chinese) although he might be very absent perhaps his only communication with the children may be demanding and critical in regards to their choices, friends and behaviors and even to an extent the children may experience a sense of rejection. Moreover, the father may also be experiencing a period of confusion in re- gards to his role as a father and his responsibilities as it may be quite different to those who his ‘original’ culture. Additionally, with further assessment there may be other variables that may cause dys- functional and ‘unhealthy’ interactions and behaviors between family members. Indeed, with in- vestigations one would establish the severity of the dysfunction and their consequences. For in- stances, we may discover triangulations when parents are in disagreement such as asking chil- dren to take sides when in conflict ( Goldenberg, Stanton & Goldenberg, 2016 ). Moreover, the father and mother may cause ‘reality shifting” which is when parents send contradicting mes- sages to what is actually happening like the father saying he does not have a gambling problem when actually the children observe him not being present and constantly being on his computer in his room. In the individual therapy sessions, we may discover that Emma feels she is being ig-
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