Physical Science 8th grade (1).pdf

12 an is an instrument used to measure temperature 13

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12. A(n) ____ is an instrument used to measure temperature. 13. The temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is 32 degrees and boiling point of water is 212 degrees is the ____ scale. 14. The temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is 0 degrees and boiling point of water is 100 degrees is the ____ scale. 15. When thermal energy flows from hot to cold it is called ____. Concepts Section 3.1 1. Scientists find it useful to use both grams and kilograms for measuring mass. Why is it necessary to have two different SI units of mass? 2. Mass describes: a. an object’s size. b. the amount of matter in an object. c. the type of elements in an object. 3. What laboratory instrument is most often used to measure mass? 4. Identify the following substances as an element or a compound : a. ____ table salt (sodium chloride) b. ____ oxygen gas c. ____ rust d. ____ iron kilogram element energy heat Celsius gram compound Calorie thermometer force atom system newton Fahrenheit conservation of energy
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70 C HAPTER 3 K EY C ONCEPTS IN P HYSICAL S CIENCE 5. If a scientist were to cut a piece of the element iron into the smallest possible piece of iron, what would be the name given to that smallest piece of iron? 6. Describe the difference between the arrangement of atoms in solids, liquids, and gases. 7. Which has the lowest energy of motion? a. solid b. liquid c. gas 8. Which has its atoms farthest apart? a. solid b. liquid c. gas 9. Which of the following is a true statement? a. In the gas state, atoms move around freely. b. Liquids do not change shape easily. c. Gas molecules move more slowly as they are heated. Section 3.2 10. Name 3 natural or man-made systems. 11. Why do scientists organize nature into systems? 12. Explain how force and energy are related. 13. Energy takes many forms. Compare potential energy to kinetic energy and give two examples of each. 14. Write the letters KE (kinetic energy) or PE (potential energy) to indicate which type of energy is illustrated by each of the following examples. a. ____ a car moving down the street b. ____ a bicycle stopped at the top of a hill c. ____ a box sitting on a table d. ____ a ball rolling across the floor 15. Which has the higher kinetic energy, ice or steam? Why? 16. Describe what happens when matter is heated to extreme temperatures greater than 10,000°C. 17. Explain the difference between thermal energy, heat, and temperature. 18. Heat always flows from ____ temperature to ____ temperature. 19. What did Gabriel Fahrenheit use to set 100°F for his Fahrenheit temperature scale? 20. What happens to atoms at absolute zero? 21. Energy is measured in: a. joules. b. newtons. c. kilograms. 22. People who say that “using less electrical energy will conserve energy” are not really saying (scientifically) what they mean. Explain in a scientifically accurate way what these people are trying to say.
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