program contributed to (or interfered with) learning. They may also be asked how easy it was to move through the program and complete the exercises, and they may be asked to evaluate the quality of feedback the training program provided after they completed the exercises. The information gained from this preview would be used by program developers to improve the program before it is made available to all employees. St. George Bank developed a new Web-based training system for bank tellers. 6 Before the program was pro- vided to all bank tellers, it was reviewed by a small group of bank tellers considered to be typical users of the program. The tellers provided suggestions for improvement, and the instructional designers incorporated their suggestions into the final version of the program. Summative Evaluation Summative evaluation refers to an evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. That is, have trainees acquired knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior, or other outcomes identified in the training objectives? Summative evaluation may also include measuring the monetary ben- efits (also known as return on investment) that the company receives from the program. Summative evaluation usually involves collecting quantitative (numerical) data through tests, ratings of behavior, or objective measures of performance such as volume of sales, accidents, or patents.
Chapter 6 Training Evaluation 219 From the discussion of summative and formative evaluation, it is probably apparent to you why a training program should be evaluated: 1. To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. This includes determining if the program is meeting the learning objectives, if the quality of the learning environment is satisfactory, and if transfer of training to the job is occurring. 2. To assess whether the content, organization, and administration of the program— including the schedule, accommodations, trainers, and materials—contribute to learn- ing and the use of training content on the job. 3. To identify which trainees benefit most or least from the program. 4. To assist in marketing programs through the collection of information from participants about whether they would recommend the program to others, why they attended the pro- gram, and their level of satisfaction with the program. 5. To determine the financial benefits and costs of the program. 6. To compare the costs and benefits of training versus nontraining investments (such as work redesign or a better employee selection system). 7. To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program. OVERVIEW OF THE EVALUATION PROCESS Before the chapter explains each aspect of training evaluation in detail, you need to under- stand the evaluation process, which is summarized in Figure 6.1. The previous discussion of formative and summative evaluation suggests that training evaluation involves scruti- nizing the program both before and after the program is completed. Figure 6.1 emphasizes
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