No group got training in a task not expected to

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– no group got training in a task not expected to increase intelligence Control group was “no-contact” – people took test 2 times w/ no contact w/ researchers in btwn Possibility that treatment group got better on the reasoning test because they expected that they would get better could not be ruled out o (2) Reasoning test differed across training groups – some got 10 min test while others got 20 min test o (3) Only used one test to see whether intelligence improved o Showing people are better on one reasoning test only means they’re better at one reasoning test Replication study was done giving people 17 different cognitive ability tests including 8 tests of fluid intelligence o 1/3 of participants assigned to a treatment group where they practiced daul n-back task o 1/3 of participants assigned to placebo group where they practiced another task o 1/3 of participants assigned to a no-contact control group Everyone was given different versions of cognitive ability tests at the end of the study o Dual n-back group was no higher in fluid intelligence than other control groups Meta-analysis – aggregates results multiple studies to arrive at more precise estimates of statistical relationships o Meta-analyses have shown that the effect of training was negligible Study gave older adults training a custom videogame called Neuroracer o It was argued that major cause of senior moment (forgetfulness, inattentiveness) is mental “clutter” As we get older, we are more easily distracted by things in outside world & by irrelevant thoughts Neuroracer is designed to strengthen ability to filter out distraction o Adults were given cognitive tests before and after they practiced Neuroracer or a control task o No demonstration that Neuroracer training made people better in real world tasks Scientists have identified activities that improve cognitive functioning o Time spent on brain training is time that you could spend on these other things o (1) Physical exercise – aerobic exercise improves cognitive functioning o (2) Learning new things – fluid intelligence is hard to change, crystallize intelligence is not hard to change Useful field of view – region of space over which a person can attend to information o Can be improved through training and correlated w/ driving performance
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