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G this category contains the majority of stem

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(g)Thiscategorycontainsthemajorityofstem-gradableverbsthathavetheradicalsj(a)anddz(a)inthepresentstem.Itconsistsofthefollowingtworows:ConsonantRows(3g)Withtheexceptionofthefuturestemthatfeaturesahomorganicsibilant,themodificationscorrespondtothevariant-pattemsofCategory(f).RadicalModifications(3g)Alsointheseinstancesitislikelythattheirregularfuturestemsgobacktoolder,moreregularformsinvolvingg7'(a)andgdz(a)which,foreuphonicreasons,laterbecamesimplified.155176
177Lessonxix(h)Someverbsthathavetheradicalsj(a)anddz(a)inthepresentstemdisplayamorebasicvariationalpattern.ConsonantRows(3h)Inotherwords,inallotherstemsthemediaeofthepresentstemisreplacedbythecorrespondinghomorganicsibilants.RadicalModifications(3h)ComparetheanalogoussimplificationsthatarefoundinCategory(d)withthecorrespondingaspiratetenuis.19.6SpecialCasesThenumberofverbswhosepatternofradical—modificationintheprocessofstem-gradationdoesnotfallintooneoftheeightmaincategoriesisnotverylarge.Anyexaminationofthesepatternsthataspirestobemoredetailedandcomprehensivethantheprecedingsurveywillneedtofocus,inparticular,ontheseexceptionsandconfirmagainstthemthelawsofmodificationthatwehaveproposedabove.Ihavelistedsomeofthesespecialcasesbelow.Thefirstthreeverbsarecharacterisedbyaveryirregularvariationoftheradical.RadicalModificationsTibetangrammaticaltraditionholdsthatthepresentstemsoftheaboveverbsarelhmi,blugandblud.Thestemslistedinthetablearesaidtorepresentindependentverbs.156177
178LessonxixRadicalModificationsAccordingtothemodification-patternofCategory(g),forverb(4)(’jalba)onewouldexpectcholasimperativestem,andnot’jol.157178
179LessonxixSchematicRepresentationoftheStemFormsoftheTibetanVerb(A)PrescriptRows(P=Prescript)(a)PPP(Punchanged)(b)PlP2(P1=P2,P,¢P2)(c)P(d)—/Pbb—/P(Punchanged;thecombinationbbPdoesnotoccur)(e)Pbg/d(Ponlygora—chm'1,dinfuturestemonlybeforevelar)(f)b/m(monlybeforen,thiscategoryisuncertain)(B)RadicalRows(a)cccchtttthtstststsh(b)phphbph(c)khkkkhchccchthttthtshtststshtshsstsh((1)chsehstshstshschs’.sstshsss(e)bphbph(0gkgkhdtdth(g)jc2ch'dztsztsh(h)ji2idzzzz158179
180Lessonxix(C)VowelRows(a)aaaa(b)aaao(c)iiii(d)iuuu(e)uuuu(f)eeee(g)eee0(h)eaa0(i)o0o0(j)oaao(D)PostscriptRows(a)s(b)SS-S(c)dss(d)ss(e)s(0-d-dInmodernorthography,Category(f)isnolongerapplicable.However,itisstillpresentintheformofsandhi-rules.159180
181LessonTwentyIntroductiontoTibetanMetrics20.1IntroductiontoTibetanMetrics:GeneralObservationsBecauseofthefrequentoccurrenceofverseintext-genresofallkinds,asoundknowledgeofthebasicrulesofTibetanmetricsisindispensable.Suchknowledgefacilitatestheinterpretationofdifficultpassagesandcontributestoidentifyingtransmissionalcorruptionsinthetextsthemselves.20.2OrganisationofStanzasInTibetantranslationliteraturebasedonSanskritandChineseoriginalswefindpredominantlyverseconsistingoffourlines.

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Term
One
Professor
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Tags
Vowel, International Phonetic Alphabet, Tibetan script

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