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so clearly laid out a template for how a study should be designed and revealed the criterianecessary to confirm the learning styles hypothesis, researchers would have a blueprint,definitive guidelines for how to design their studies. The current investigation searchedfor this type of evidence in an attempt to evaluate whether a gap remains betweenresearch findings and the methods advocated in pre-service teacher education programsand those practiced in the classroom. Has new evidence, based on rigorous methodology,surfaced to support widespread learning style practices, or does the latest research con-tinue to suggest that learning styles instruction is a misguided and wasteful endeavor? Italso went further and examined how learning styles are represented in teacher educationtextbooks, as this could potentially be one of the causes of the gap between research onthe subject and its acceptance in practice.TextsThe learning styles hypothesis is arguably more important to teacher education than anyother field because what tens of thousands of pre-service teachers learn in certificationprograms and subsequently take with them into the classroom can potentially impact theinstruction of millions of k-12 students over the decades they teach. But, like students inother undergraduate fields, undergraduate students in the field of education do the bulkof their assigned readings from textbooks and do not tend to read a great deal of peer-reviewed primary source research studies, which are usually not picked up en masse untilthe graduate level. For this reason, it is worth briefly examining how learning styles areportrayed in a number of textbooks common to teacher education programs. Both gen-eral education texts containing advice for pre-service undergraduate teacher candidatesand undergraduate educational psychology texts were included, and their portrayals ofthe subject of learning styles are contrasted below.General teacher education textsAll of the general teacher education texts reviewed for this article included sections onlearning styles, most commonly in conjunction with a discussion of multiple intelligences,
314Theory and Research in Education 13(3)and presented the topic as a way to differentiate instruction for learners. Some presentedinformation on multiple intelligences and learning styles as if the two were synonymous,flowing seamlessly from one to the other (Hipsky, 2011; Silver et al., 2000). The modelthat was most frequently described was the sensory-based visual, auditory, kinesthetic,tactile (VAKT) framework (Carjuzaa and Kellough, 2013; Powell, 2012; Smith andThrone, 2009). One text used the 4MAT system in discussing learning styles, a model thatencompasses experiences, viewing, doing, and exploring what-if questions (Wormeli,2007). Another advocated for the Myers–Briggs model for math instruction, whichincludes mastery, understanding, self-expressive, and interpersonal domains (Smith andThrone, 2009).

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