IDA is a microcytic hypochromic anemia meaning in this anemia erythrocytes are

Ida is a microcytic hypochromic anemia meaning in

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IDA is a microcytic-hypochromic anemia, meaning in this anemia erythrocytes are abnormally small, and have decreased amounts of hemoglobin, and can result from iron metabolism disorders or blood loss (Huether, and McCance, 2017). With IDA, a person may have a functional or relative iron deficiency, or they may have a disorder causing inadequate irondelivery or impaired iron absorption in the bone marrow compromising the hemoglobin proteins within the RBC. Common causes of blood loss are a result of cancers, cirrhosis, esophageal varices, hemorrhoids, hiatal hernia, Helicobacter pylori infection, medications causing gastrointestinal bleeding, surgery, and ulcers (Huether, and McCance, 2017).
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WEEKLY DISCUSSIONS5Pathophysiology of Pernicious AnemiaThe most common type of macrocytic anemia is Pernicious anemia (PA) (Huether, and McCance, 2017). PA is a vitamin B12 deficiency (Huether, and McCance, 2017). PA may be congenital, although it is often associated with an autoimmune type of gastritis that causes destruction of gastric parietal cells. The autoimmune process may be secondary to a previous helicobacter pylori infection. Vegetarians, excessive alcohol or hot tea ingestion, smoking, use ofproton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastrectomy are all environmental factors that can contribute to gastritis. However, PA is due to the of absence of intrinsic factor (IF). IF is a required element in the absorption of dietary vitamin B12. (Huether, and McCance, 2017).Gastric mucosal atrophy occurs from destruction of parietal and zymogenic cells from antibodies in autoimmune gastritis, or type A chronic gastritis (Huether, and McCance, 2017). Because of this autoimmune destruction, gastric secretions including IF become impaired. Huether and McCance (2017) reports a direct correlation between gastric lesions and the malabsorption of B12. PA slowly develops, and usually, treatment is not sought after until it is severe because early symptoms are vague. Early symptoms include cardiac, gastrointestinal or kidney ailments, infections and mood swings (Huether, and McCance, 2017). The classic clinical manifestations of PA include abdominal pain, ataxia, atrophic glossitis, difficulty walking, fatigue, hepatomegaly, lemon yellow skin, loss of appetite, paresthesias of feet and fingers, nonpalpable splenomegaly, weakness, and weight loss (Huether, and McCance, 2017). It is important to point out nerve demyelination produces neuronal death and can cause neurologic manifestations, posing a serious threat because neuro complications are irreversible (Huether, and McCance, 2017).FactorsAge is a factor in both IDA and PA. Women of reproductive ages have a higher incidence rate of IDA due to heavy menses (Huether, and McCance, 2017). Where PA most commonly affects people of both sexes greater than 30 years old. Because vitamin B12 is almost exclusivelyfound in animal-based foods, concern exists for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet. Any individual who significantly limits intake of animal-based foods will require vitamin B12-
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