B the dimensional approach is an alternative to

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b. The dimensional approach is an alternative to categorization by type in which mental disorders are considered on a continuum from mild/normal to severe/maladaptive. Benefits—people can vary in degree instead of kind (which experience would suggest is a realistic way to thinking about mental disorders); many mental disorders are extremes of normal thoughts/emotions/behaviors, and this approach captures that variation. c. Limitations of the DSM—you either have a disorder or you do not (you have enough symptoms or you do not). This does not mean you are not experiencing problems or need help. Similarly, the DSM treats disorders as separate (discrete), even though we know comorbidity occurs highly with specific disorders. DIF: Difficult OBJ: 13.1d MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 4, Communication
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5. Kailyn was recently in a car accident. Ever since, she has been experiencing intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, and is having difficulty concentrating in school a. What DSM-5 category does Kailyn’s behavior fit into? What specific diagnosis might you give her? b. Does everyone who is in a car accident develop the same symptoms as Kailyn? Why or why not? Discuss two factors (one biological, one psychological) that make a person more susceptible to these issues. ANS: Answers may include: a. Trauma- and stressor-related disorders; specific diagnosis: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) b. Although some people develop PTSD when exposed to severe stress or emotional trauma, not everyone who does is as susceptible to stress responses. Biological vulnerability may arise from specific genetic markers; psychological vulnerability may arise from people who more frequently experience anxious cognitions or pay special attention to traumatic stimuli. In addition, biological differences exist between the sexes: women may be more likely to have PTSD because of hormonal or neurotransmitter differences (than men); culturally, it is more acceptable for women to express negative emotions, so women may be more likely to have negative thoughts and feelings and may be predisposed to pay more attention to stressful stimuli. DIF: Moderate OBJ: 13.2a MSC: Applying NOT: APA Goal 1, Knowledge Base in Psychology | APA Goal 2, Scientific Inquiry and Critical Thinking | APA Goal 3, Ethical and Social Responsibility in a Diverse World | APA Goal 4, Communication 6. Panic attacks and agoraphobia are related disorders of emotion. a. Describe each disorder, including an explanation of the major symptoms. b. Can you have panic attacks without agoraphobia? Can you have agoraphobia without panic attacks? c. Discuss two factors that can lead to the development of anxiety disorders. ANS: Answers may include: a. Panic attacks—anxiety disorder that consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror (symptoms: sweaty, trembling, heart racing, dizzy, light-headed, tingling in hands/feet, feel like you are going crazy/dying, come on quickly, feel like you cannot escape). Agoraphobia—fear of being in a situation in
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