1. The argument from motion (derives from the fact of change) 2. First-Cause argument3. Argument from contingency4. Argument from Gradation
5. The Teleological ArgumentWhy can't the chain of causes “go back to infinity,” according to Aquinas?
“But this cannot go back to infinity. If it did, there would be no first cause of change a consequently, no other causes of change- for something can be a secondary cause of change only if it is changed by a primary cause. We must therefore posit a first cause of change which is not itself changed by anything. And this everyone understands to be God.” (pg. 43)How would you asses Aquinas's claim that “is something can fail to exist, there must have been a time at which it has failed to exist”? Can you think of any counterexamples?“ Therefore, if everything could fail to exist, there would have been a time at which nothing existed. But, if there had been such a time, there would not be be anything in the world now- for something can begin to exist only if brought into existance by something that already exists. Therefore, if there once had been nothing in existance, it would have been impossible for anything to come into existance, and there would be nothing now. Therefore, not every entity can fail to exist ; there must be something in the world that exists of necessity.” (pg. 43)Could there be something besides God that exists necessarily? Could the universe exist necessarily?“But if something exists of necessity, either this necessity is or is not caused by something else. And the series of necessary beings whose necessity is caused by another cannot go back to infinity…. “(pg. 43-44)8