1 the argument from motion derives from the fact of

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1. The argument from motion (derives from the fact of change) 2. First-Cause argument3. Argument from contingency4. Argument from Gradation 5. The Teleological ArgumentWhy can't the chain of causes “go back to infinity,” according to Aquinas? “But this cannot go back to infinity. If it did, there would be no first cause of change a consequently, no other causes of change- for something can be a secondary cause of change only if it is changed by a primary cause. We must therefore posit a first cause of change which is not itself changed by anything. And this everyone understands to be God.” (pg. 43)How would you asses Aquinas's claim that “is something can fail to exist, there must have been a time at which it has failed to exist”? Can you think of any counterexamples?“ Therefore, if everything could fail to exist, there would have been a time at which nothing existed. But, if there had been such a time, there would not be be anything in the world now- for something can begin to exist only if brought into existance by something that already exists. Therefore, if there once had been nothing in existance, it would have been impossible for anything to come into existance, and there would be nothing now. Therefore, not every entity can fail to exist ; there must be something in the world that exists of necessity.” (pg. 43)Could there be something besides God that exists necessarily? Could the universe exist necessarily?“But if something exists of necessity, either this necessity is or is not caused by something else. And the series of necessary beings whose necessity is caused by another cannot go back to infinity…. “(pg. 43-44)8
Thursday, January 19, 2017Does an object that “tends toward an end,” as Aquinas puts it, require some intelligence to direct it?Language- Chp. 5I.The nature of LanguageA.Symbolic1.Represents an object or idea but does not constitute itB.Arbitrary1.Words literally mean whatever we use-as users of a language- chose for them to mean2.An exception might be onomatopoeia C. When does a word become real?1.I think a word becomes real when there is an understanding of its meaning becomes almost universal II.Lang is governed by rulesA.Phonological rules1.Pronunciation B.Syntactic rules1.Org of wordsC.Semantic rules1.Literal meaningsD.Pragmatic rules1.Contextual meaningsIII.Lang has layers of meanings A.Denotative1.Litteral or dictionary meaning9
Thursday, January 19, 2017B.Connotative 1.What the word impliesC.The semantic triangle1.Symbola)Home2.Referent a)House3.Referencea)Home with family(1)Can change depending on how you view it and who you areIV.Lang has layers of meaningA.Loaded Lang compromises words with strongly positive or negative connotative meanings1.Cancer2.Peace3.Family4.FreedomB.The denotative meaning of loaded Lang may be emotionally neutral V.Lang varies in clarityA.AmbiguityB.Varies in abstraction VI.Lang is bound by context and cultureA.The Sapir whorf hypothesis: linguistic determinism1.Your Lang environment helps determines what we know and can perceive VII. Can Lang effect how you send money? (Video)VIII.Appreciating the Power of Words10

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