Found of demography argues that food increases

This preview shows page 8 - 10 out of 22 pages.

(found of demography) argues that food increases arithmetically while population increases geometrically.Malthus proposes that positive checkswill prevent overpopulation by increasing death rate (ex. Famine, war), and preventive checkswill prevent overpopulation by limiting the number of live births (ex. infanticide, abstinence, abortion). Carrying capacity: the number of people who can be supported by the available resources at a given level of technology. Lester Brown: food production is increasing at a slower rate since the mid-1990’s resulting in an increase in famine. Population growth rate is decreasing and expected to peak at 9 billion people in 2070, atwhich point it will begin to decrease.Demographic Transition Theory (Kingsley Davis):After a decline in death-rate societies tend to lower their birthrates within one or two generations.Stage 1: High death and birthrates. Stage 2: A decline in death-rate. Stage 3: birthrate starts to fall. Stage 4: a new level of equilibrium. Occurs within modern industrial societies.Critical theorist perspective:Over-population does not cause famine, but rather improper land use, civil wars, and other social and political factors; positive checksdo not cause overpopulation. POVERTY causes overpopulation; having many children in a poor rural environment results in greater economic prosperity because your children become your labor force. Having children in a poor urban environment results in less children since children cannot be utilized for economic gain (they have to go to school). Zero population growth: births are balanced by deaths. Colonial expansioncan undermine a society by specializing in an economy that undermines the society’s economic potential (ex. cheap manufacturing, farming, etc.). Urban LifeFunctionalist perspective:(i) Growth itself causes social problems (ex. wealth in cities causes more property crime, greater competition, and private vices (drug use)). (ii) Urbanization (city life: size, variety and fluidity) causes social problems (ex. Social disorganization, weak social control, etc.).Durkheim: people in small towns experience common conscience(similar values, norms, and identity, and mechanical solidarity (interconnected, homogeneous(“same kind”) of social order). Urban-industrial societies experience organic solidarity(unintimate social order).Critical Theorist perspective:
SOC103H1 - 9Cities suffer from problems because those in power are not interested in preventing this from happening.The problem is ultimately economic inequality; differential distribution of the rich and poor in a city. Symbolic Interactionist perspective:Georg Simmel: cities are so inherently stimulating and quick-paced that to prevent sensory overload, inhabitants need to reduce their sensitivity to events and people around them. Herbert Gans (1982): People in cities connect with each other by ascribing to particular subcultures(groups with distinctive values, norms, style of dress, etc.). Human ecology approach:Concentric Zone Theory (Ernest Burgess):

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture