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CHEM 162 Final Review

Edelta is negative exothermic if the start is above

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Edelta is negative (exothermic) if the start is above the finish Catalysts decrease Ea without increasing T Inhibitors increase Ea without decreasing T Catalysts used for biological needs, speeding up commercial processes, and to reduce  pollution Ozone In lower atmospheres is bad (oxidizing agent) 3O2   2O3 In upper atmospheres is good (blocks UV radiation) O + O3   2O2
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03:14 Chapter 16: Liquids and Solids
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03:14 16.10 Vapor Pressure and changes of state phase changes for water solid liquid= melting +Hdelta solid gas= sublimation +Hdelta liquid gas= vaporization +Hdelta gas solid= deposition –Hdelta gas liquid= condensation –Hdelta liquid solid= fusion/freezing –Hdelta Hdelta(not)(vap)= standard enthalpy of vaporization Pressure of vapor at equilibrium is Pvap If it is large, it is called volatile (easy to vaporate) Higher Pvap at lower temperature As intermolecular forces increase, Pvap decreases lnP= (-Hdelta(vap)/R)*(1/T) + C ln(P2/P1)= (-Hdelta(vap)/R)*(1/T1 – 1/T2) graph of cooling of gas to solid (same as heating curve from solid to gas) slanted lines are the phase horizontal lines are the change x axis- heat removed y axis- temp (C)
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03:14 melting point energy added disrupts the solid structure, increasing potential energy of molecules solid and liquid states have same Pvap=1atm boiling point Pvap of liquid becomes equal to ressure of its environment Normal: temp at which Pvap=1atm Cooling is sensitive to pressure In lower pressure, lower boiling point 16.1 Intermolecular forces intamolecular- within a molecule ionic- cation-anion covalent- nuclei-shared e pair metallic- cations-delocalized electrons intermolecular- between molecules ion-dipole- ion charge dipole charge H bond- polar bond to H-diole charge (N, O, F) Dipole-dipole- dipole charges Ion-induced dipole- ion charge- polarizable electron cloud Dipole-induced dipole- dipole charge-polarizable electron cloud LDF- polarizable electron clouds 16.2 The liquid State
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03:14 Surface tension- the resistance of a liquid to an incease in surface area; surface can be  vapor/solid Molecule at the surface only attracted by molecules next to and below it Adhesive- IMF between substance and wall (polar and polar) so attraction so concave  meniscus Cohesive- IMF within substance is great than between the substance and the wall (polar  and nonpolar) so convex meniscus Less attraction, liquid minimizes surface areas and beads up 16.3 an introduction to structures and types of solids crystalline solids-those with a highly regular arrangment of their components the positions of the components in a crystalline solid are represented by a lattice array amorphous solids- those wih considerabl disorder in their structures
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Edelta is negative exothermic if the start is above the...

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