Edelta is positive endothermic if start is below the

Info icon This preview shows pages 10–15. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Edelta is positive (endothermic) if start is below the finish Edelta is negative (exothermic) if the start is above the finish Catalysts decrease Ea without increasing T Inhibitors increase Ea without decreasing T Catalysts used for biological needs, speeding up commercial processes, and to reduce  pollution Ozone In lower atmospheres is bad (oxidizing agent) 3O2   2O3 In upper atmospheres is good (blocks UV radiation) O + O3   2O2
Image of page 10

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
03:14 Chapter 16: Liquids and Solids
Image of page 11
03:14 16.10 Vapor Pressure and changes of state phase changes for water solid liquid= melting +Hdelta solid gas= sublimation +Hdelta liquid gas= vaporization +Hdelta gas solid= deposition –Hdelta gas liquid= condensation –Hdelta liquid solid= fusion/freezing –Hdelta Hdelta(not)(vap)= standard enthalpy of vaporization Pressure of vapor at equilibrium is Pvap If it is large, it is called volatile (easy to vaporate) Higher Pvap at lower temperature As intermolecular forces increase, Pvap decreases lnP= (-Hdelta(vap)/R)*(1/T) + C ln(P2/P1)= (-Hdelta(vap)/R)*(1/T1 – 1/T2) graph of cooling of gas to solid (same as heating curve from solid to gas) slanted lines are the phase horizontal lines are the change x axis- heat removed y axis- temp (C)
Image of page 12

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
03:14 melting point energy added disrupts the solid structure, increasing potential energy of molecules solid and liquid states have same Pvap=1atm boiling point Pvap of liquid becomes equal to ressure of its environment Normal: temp at which Pvap=1atm Cooling is sensitive to pressure In lower pressure, lower boiling point 16.1 Intermolecular forces intamolecular- within a molecule ionic- cation-anion covalent- nuclei-shared e pair metallic- cations-delocalized electrons intermolecular- between molecules ion-dipole- ion charge dipole charge H bond- polar bond to H-diole charge (N, O, F) Dipole-dipole- dipole charges Ion-induced dipole- ion charge- polarizable electron cloud Dipole-induced dipole- dipole charge-polarizable electron cloud LDF- polarizable electron clouds 16.2 The liquid State
Image of page 13
03:14 Surface tension- the resistance of a liquid to an incease in surface area; surface can be  vapor/solid Molecule at the surface only attracted by molecules next to and below it Adhesive- IMF between substance and wall (polar and polar) so attraction so concave  meniscus Cohesive- IMF within substance is great than between the substance and the wall (polar  and nonpolar) so convex meniscus Less attraction, liquid minimizes surface areas and beads up 16.3 an introduction to structures and types of solids crystalline solids-those with a highly regular arrangment of their components
Image of page 14

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 15
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern