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35 locke quoted in macpherson political theory of

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35. Locke, quoted in Macpherson, Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, 214; Macpherson, Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, 215. 36. Macpberson, Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, 215. 37. Mary Poovey, Uneven Developments: The Ideological Work of Gender in Mid- Victorian England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 76. 38. Tim Dolin, Mistress of the House: Women of Property in the Victorian Novel (Aldersbot: Ashgate, 1997), 7. 39. Jeff Nunokawa, The Afterlife of Property: Domestic Security and the Victorian Novel (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), 10,13. 40. Henry James, The Portrait of a Lady, ed. Geoffrey Moore (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1984), 253. 41. Rachel Bowlby, Just Looking: Consumer Gulture in Dreiser, Gissing and Zola (New York: Metbuen, 1985), 28. 42. Klaus Tbeweleit provides an influential and provocative account of this as- sociation in Western and other cultural traditions in Male Fantasies, vol. 1, Women, Floods, Bodies, History, trans. Stephen Conway in collaboration with Erica Carter and Chris Turner (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), 229-362. I refer to other arguments about the association between femininity and fluidity in the next section. 43. Bowlby, Just Looking, 28. 44. The feminizing loss of agency iriberent in the idea of tbe consumer citizen that I am emphasizing here needs to be qualified by the point made by many feminist historians and theorists that commodity culture, in casting women as tbe pre- eminent consumers, afforded them agency and even power. Bowlby, for instance, notes the way in which nineteenth-century writers often represented middle-class women's consumption as "a token of growing emancipation" Qust Looking, 20). For furtber discussion of the liberatory aspects of consumption for women in late Victorian and Edwardian Britain, see, e.g., Lori Anne Loeb, Gonsuming Angels: Advertising and Victorian Women (Oxford: Berg, 2003) and Erika Diane Rappaport, Shopping for Pleasure: Women in the Making of London's West End (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000). However, although the idea of female empowerment via
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The Turn of the Screw, Modernism, and Commodity Culture 475 shopping is undoubtedly an important development at this time, it does not dis- place longstanding associations of femininity with object-hood. 45. "Possessive individualism" has come to be used, inaccurately in my view, as equivalent to the notion of the consumer citizen. In fact, in liberal thought the self is supposedly a self before it owns anything rather than a self constituted through ownership. My point here is that this supposition is a misconstrual of the actuality of relations between property and identity. For a complementary argument treating rather different historical and cultural materials, see Lynn Festa, "Personal Effects: Wigs and Possessive Individualisrn in the Long Eighteenth Century," Eighteenth- Century Life 29, no. 2 (2005), esp. 48-49. Festa argues that the cultural significance of the wig exposes the dependence of the notionally autonomous eighteenth-century bourgeois individual on his possessions.
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