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CLEP Principles of Management 1

101 102 training on the job training employee learns

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101. 102. TRAINING On-The-Job Training - employee learns while he is productively employed- often being coached while he performs his regular job. On-the-job training (OJT) is probably the oldest type of employee training around. Most appropriate for a simple task Vestibule Training involves in-house training, but it is in an area separate from the normal pressures of the position. What the employee produces during Vestibule Training may be actually used by the company, but the important thing is that he is in a separate area specifically for training.
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Apprenticeship is a type of training which involves a long-term obligation to work under a skilled worker in return for training in that skill. Apprenticeship involves working under a skilled worker to learn his trade. Rotation is considered a type of training--it involves moving employees through highly diversified and differentiated jobs to give them a variety of experience. 103. a.i. TYPES OF AUTHORITY (and responsibility) Authority - legitimate power determined by the organizational structure. Authority involves rules, roles, and relations. Rules legitimize authority. Role is position or office with authority inherent in the position, not in the person. Relations are related to credibility, obtained through experience. Line authority managers have the formal power to direct and control immediate subordinates. The superior issues orders and is responsible for the result—the subordinate obeys and is responsible only for executing the order according to instructions. Functional authority is where managers have formal power over a specific subset of activities. For instance, the Production Manager may have the line authority to decide whether and when a new machine is needed but the Controller demands that a Capital Expenditure Proposal is submitted first, showing that the investment will have a yield of at least x%; or, a legal department may have functional authority to interfere in any activity that could have legal consequences. This authority would not be functional but it would rather be staff authority if such interference is "advice" rather than "order". Staff authority is granted to staff specialists in their areas of expertise. It is not a real authority in the sense that a staff manager does not order or instruct but simply advises, recommends, and counsels in the staff specialists' area of expertise and is responsible only for the quality of the advice (to be in line with the respective professional standards etc.) It is a communication relationship with management . It has an influence that derives indirectly from line authority at a higher level. Organizational authority flows down the vertical hierarchy from top to bottom as managers at the top of the hierarchy possess more formal power than those at the bottom of the hierarchy. Since organizational authority is based on one's position, it stands to reason that all those in the same position have the same authority. Subordinates accept organizational authority because they believe that managers have
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101 102 TRAINING On The Job Training employee learns while...

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