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Unformatted text preview: a) It does. b) It does not, and should. c) It does not, and should not. Main Review Question Many forms of bias are unavoidable; they’re part of being human. However, many others are deliberate. Watch a news broadcast or the commercials aired during entertainment programs. How many forms of bias can you find? Which are unavoidable and which are deliberate? Consider how the commercials might go if the bias was eliminated. Would they be as effective? For ideas on how to proceed, start with the distinction between illegitimate and legitimate bias on pp. 28–31. The different forms of illegitimate bias are discussed on pp. 31–41. Good Reasoning Matters! A Constructive Approach to Critical Thinking , Fifth Edition © Oxford University Press Canada, 2012 Answer Key Passage 1 1. a) Yes. The billboard is advertising for a brand that competes with Smudgkins. They have a financial interest in convincing people to buy Wonko. See pp. 31–33. 2. b) No. A conflict of interest exists in cases where we expect a certain amount of detachment from the arguer, and the arguer fails to be detached. We don’t expect advertisers to be detached, so there’s no possibility of a conflict of interest. See pp. 34–35. 3. a) Yes. The argument is obviously slanted, as most advertisements or other very short arguments are. In this case, nothing is said about the benefits of Smudgkins chocolate nor the demerits of Wonko chocolate. Only focusing on the downside of Smudgkins and the upside of Wonko slants the argument by leaving out other relevant information. See pp. 36–38. 4. a) Yes. It is unlikely, unless it is extremely poor quality, that Smudgkins chocolate actually tastes like chalk. Saying so is therefore pretty serious slanting by distortion. See pp. 38–40. 5. c) It does not, and should not. Advertisements are arguments, but we usually expect them to be one-sided. So even though this doesn’t consider opposing views, we probably wouldn’t expect it to. Leaving them out is thus not a serious defect. That said, anyone considering buying Wonko chocolate would be advised to consider the alternate view themselves. After all, maybe it’s the one that tastes like chalk. See pp. 40–41. Passage 2 1. a) Yes. The king is trying to persuade people that he shouldn’t have to pay taxes. If he doesn’t pay taxes, then he keeps more of his money. This is a clear financial interest. See pp. 31–33. 2. a) Yes. The king holds a political office. Generally, we expect—in some cases, legally require—that people who hold political offices do not get involved in issues that affect their own interests. In this case, the king is arguing about something that could affect his own financial interests. Thus, he is in a conflict of interest. See pp. 34–35....
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- Summer '09
- Logic, Conflict of interest, Vesting