Temple of apollo photo restored temple of apollo

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Temple of Apollo Photo Restored Temple of Apollo Pompeii, c. 79 AD Current Ruins
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    12 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 …. for Popular Occasions…. The Coliseum in Rome, 70 AD, Photo Restored
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    13 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 ….for Water Delivery…. Roman Aqueduct
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    14 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 ….and for Land Travel 1 Paving Slabs Stones & Gravel Trench Foundation 1
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    15 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 The Roman Empire: All Road Lead to Rome “The Romans are known to history as great engineers. Partly this is due to the monumentality of their construction… (but) partly too it is owing to their organizational abilities. It is perhaps in this last category that the Romans truly excelled.” A.G. Drachman The Mechanical Technology of Greek and Roman Antiquity, 1963
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    16 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 Roman Organization: The Western Template Standardized Cities Similarity: Throughout the Roman Empire Infrastructure: Water, sewers, commerce Governance: Security, laws and courts Unified State Politics and Military: Centrally coordinated, widely applied Transportation: Goods moved by land and sea Communication: Over road networks and by signals Stratification: Citizens, soldiers, businessmen, professionals, engineers, artisans, tradesmen, slaves, etc. Common Culture: Dispersed both voluntarily and coercively
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    17 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 Chinese Technology: 2000 BC to 1000 AD Agriculture Seed Drill (~2000 BC) Row Cultivation and Intensive Hoeing (~2000 BC) Chain Pump for Irrigation (~100 AD) Industry and Warfare Paper for Clothing, Armor and Writing (~200 AD) Steel and Blast Furnace (~200-400 AD) Printing with Fixed Type (~600 AD) Gunpowder (~850 AD) Compass (~1000 AD) Construction Suspension Bridge (~100 AD) The Great Wall of China (~700 BC – 1500 AD) Most of these great inventions did not appear in Europe until the very late Medieval Period and/or the Industrial Revolution. Why? 4000 year old noodles excavated in northwestern China, Nature, 10/13/05
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    18 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 The Not-So-Dark Ages: Europe 500-1450 AD Church Centered Feudal Social Structure Enhanced Roman Technology Asian & Arabian Influences Agricultural Surpluses Emerging Capitalism Great Civic Cathedrals Beginning of “Invention” Medieval Society:
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    19 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 Medieval Technology: Improved Horse Power 1000 1250 1500 750 500 Horse Power Horse Shoes Breast Strap Horse Collar Stirrup Heavy Plow
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    20 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 The European Mounted Knight Long Lance Metal Armor Saddle, Girth And Stirrups Societal Effects: Armor Over Infantry Enhanced Military Strength Feudal Funding Structure Need for Counter Tactics
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    21 Copyright Gershon Weltman, 2010 The Anti-Knight: English Longbow Armor piercing capability 1000 arrow/second volleys First fielded 1000 to 1300 Decisive at Agincourt (1415) in English defeat of French army Shifted power to Yeomanry All able-bodied Englishmen
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