WBC counts: Normally, a cubic milliliter of blood contains between __5,000 ______ & __ 10,000___ white blood cells. A __ differential_________ white blood cell count can help pinpoint the nature of an illness, indicating whether it is caused by bacteria or viruses. Acute infections cause an excess of WBCs known as _leucocytosis__________. A deficiency of WBCs, called _____ leucopenia_____, can also indicate a variety of infections including AIDS. What is leukemia? A malignant progressive disease in which the bone marrow and other blood- forming organs produce increased numbers of immature or abnormal leukocytes. These suppress the production of normal blood cells, leading to anemia and other symptoms Granulocytes : Why is this group called granulocytes? Because they have granules in the cytoplasm. Neutrophils: Neutrophils have ___ red ________-staining fine cytoplasmic granules and a __ multi ____-lobed nucleus; they comprise most of the leukocytes. What is their function? Phagocytize bacteria, fungi, and some viruses. What does diapedesis mean? Squeezing between cells in blood vessel walls. 4
Eosinophils: Eosinophils have coarse granules that stain deep a ___ bi _______-lobed nucleus. What are their functions? Moderate allergic reactions, defend against certain parasites. Basophils: Basophils have fewer granules that stain ___ deep blue ______________. Basophils produce chemicals, what are the functions of these chemicals? (i) heparin- increase blood flow to damaged tissues . (ii) histamine- Promote inflammation response Agranulocytes : Why are they called agranulocytes? They do not have cytoplasmic granules Monocytes: Monocytes are the ____ largest _________ blood cells, have ____ oval __________-shaped nuclei. What is the function of the monocytes? The main function of monocytes is to ingest harmful, dead, or damaged cells in the blood. Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes are long-lived, have a large, ___ spherical ________ nucleus. What is their function? They are involved in immunity responses. Platelets = thrombocytes : Blood platelets are fragments of big cells called ____ megakaryocytes _____________________. Platelets help repair damaged blood vessels by ______ adhering __________ to their broken edges. Plasma: Plasma is the clear, straw-colored fluid portion of the blood. 5
What are plasma’s functions? Plasma functions to transport nutrients and gases, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and maintain a favorable pH. Plasma proteins: The plasma proteins are the most abundant dissolved substances in the plasma . Briefly describe the functions of the following plasma proteins. albumin : Help maintain the osmotic pressure of the blood and account for 60% of the plasma proteins. globulin: Are designated as alpha, beta, and gamma globulins. Alpha and beta globulins function in transporting lipids and fat soluble vitamins. Gamma globulins are a type of antibody fibrinogen: Plays a primary role in blood coagulation. hormones: Peptides regulate functions such as sleep and sugar concentration. They are made from long strings of amino acids, so sometimes they are referred to as "protein" hormones.
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- Winter '14
- red blood cells