Modern European History Final Study Guide

Whether it increases pain or pleasure motives are bad

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whether it increases pain or pleasure – motives are bad or good based on the outcome happiness is a result of experiencing pleasure and lack of pain Edmund Burke : founder of modern conservative thought (“The Reflection of the Revolutions in France”) David Ricardo : “Principles of Political Economy”; Iron Law of Wages Socialism – Utopian Socialists, Early English Socialists : French Utopian Socialists: promoted a system of greater economic equality but organized by the government; top-down approach; Early English Socialists & Robert Owen
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adopted several methods – wanted to improve the life of his workers; at his industrial center, he built houses & schools for children; didn’t pay workers during depression rather than laying them off – eventually made a profit doing this; helped people get through depression; doesn’t take into consideration of class struggle or society at large Charles Fourier to another to avoid tedium; workers to be recompensed for their labors according to their contribution (Phalanxes) Robert Owen : (Early English Socialist); industrial center in New Lanark, adopted several methods – wanted to improve the life of his workers; at his industrial center, he built houses & schools for children; didn’t pay workers during depression rather than laying them off – eventually made a profit doing this; helped people get through depression; doesn’t take into consideration of class struggle or society at large; he thought that if you improve people’s conditions, you will make them better in general & more efficient; felt there was no need for bad conditions or low wages in factory Chartism : “People’s Charter”; wasn’t necessarily brought as a movement; British political reform – to make the political system more democratic 1. Universal male suffrage 2. Annual elections 3. Equal electoral district 4. Abolition of property requirements for members of parliament 5. Payment of members of parliament Marxism, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels : Economic & sociopolitical worldview; Karl Marx : great economist; all societies progress through the dialectic of class struggle (a conflict b/t ownership class and lower class); wanted an industrialized country Friedrich Engels : co-founder of Marxism Revolutions of 1848 : series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848; European collapse of traditional authority; began in France Europe Latin America; widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership; demand for more participation in democracy; demands of the working class; upsurge of nationalism Nationalism – types: cultural, liberal, and triumphal: Cultural : Herder promoted this (1744-1803); encouraged the culture of the Letts (Latvians); each nation has its own fundamental nature that needs to be respected; Grimm – fairytales – to find out about Germany’s true nature to Liberal: idea of popular sovereignty; concerned with creating a constitutional government; in 1848, the idea didn’t work
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Triumphal : triumphant nationalism (we’re the best); very extreme; chauvinistic
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whether it increases pain or pleasure motives are bad or...

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