How Hitler became chancellor and use this decree to consolidate his power - Walter Rathenau o 1867 – 1922 o Jewish statesman who served as German Foreign Minister during the Weimar Republic o Signed controversial treaty with Soviet Union o Immensely wealthy capitalist/industrialist o Represented everything stereotypical of Jew o Political beneficiary of revolution of 1918 o Hated as a democrat and radical right as a Jew and died by assassination - Scientific Racism o Using science to explain human origin and differences saying internal qualities including character, moral, and intelligence derived from external differences o Part of enlightenment drive for systematic scientific inquiry
o Example: De Gobineau describes race as an unchanging “spiritual essence” by classifying racial hierarchy with culture creators, destroyers, and maintainers - Desecration of the Host o Middle age Europe o Bread and wine turned into body and blood of Jesus Christ o False allegations accusing Jews of stealing hosts and abusing them to re-enact the crucifixion of Jesus by stabbing or burning them o Argument against Jews adherence to their traditions o Proof that Judaism has no more virtue and is replaced but the Jews don’t realize it themselves o Example: painting of Jews in Passau, Germany in 1477 - Weimar Republic o 1919 – 1933 o Liberal and progressive democratic constitution after Germany’s military defeat in 1918 o First major European power after Russia to give women the vote o Strongest economy in Europe as neighboring countries struggle from postwar recoveries and Germany avoiding reparations o Facilitated the rise of the Nazi party o Faced hyperinflation in 1923 - Protocols of the Elders of Zion o 1902 o Secret meetings of an international conference of “the learned elders of Zion” o Anti-Semitic literary hoax aimed at showing the existence of an international Jewish conspiracy bent on world dominance o Behind forces of modernity including liberalism, parliamentary democracy, finance capitalism, Marxism, anarchism, and the press o Enjoy wide readership only when they were translated into numerous languages after WWI - Count Arthur de Gobineau o 1816 – 1882 o French nobility who wrote the essay on the inequality of the human races o Mentioned that race is an unchanging “spiritual essence” o Idea of racial hierarchy with culture creators (white), culture destroyers (black), and culture maintainers (yellow) o Shaped Hitler with the concept that a civilization’s rise and fall is dependent on race, not economy o Racial mixing is important to avoid for the survival of the white race - Paul von Hindenburg o President of Germany from 1925 – 1934 o Military leader – convinced government together with Erich Ludendorff that it was necessary to sue for peace in October 1918
Signed the Armistice, ending WWI Started stab in the back theory to save own reputation o President – invoke Article 48 multiple times, gave Hitler chancellor position before he became president after himself - Houston Stewart Chamberlain o
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- Spring '07
- Adolf Hitler, Nazism, Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg