Chapter 19 - chemical thermodynamics - outline 5-7-00

In simple terms a process is spontaneous if it

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the Second Law.  In simple terms  a process is spontaneous if it proceeds on its own once initiated.  In more technical terms,  a process is spontaneous if it transfers  free energy  from the system to the  surroundings.   In 1875 J. Willard Gibbs defined the spontaneity of a reaction in terms of its ability to perform "useful work" (in  principle or practice). This ability to do work is determined, according to Gibbs, by the change in  free energy  during a chemical change,  G . This quantity gives the maximum  amount of work obtainable from a spontaneous  reaction (OR it tells how much work must be done to make a reaction spontaneous).  The sign of  G in an indicator of whether a reaction will be spontaneous or not.  when  G < 0, the reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction(it is capable of doing useful work)  when  G = 0, the system is at equilibrium  when  G > 0, the reaction is non-spontaneous (work must come from the surroundings to make the  reaction happen)   the opposite is true for the reverse reactions…. H represents the total amount of energy that must be transferred to the surroundings in order to keep the temperature of the system at 298 K ** (25 O C = standard temp. for equilibria)
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Chemical Thermodynamics
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