Chapter 19 - chemical thermodynamics - outline 5-7-00

Since we are able to calculate this we can now also

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Unformatted text preview: Since we are able to calculate this we can now also determine whether a process should be spontaneous according to the Second Law. In simple terms a process is spontaneous if it proceeds on its own once initiated. In more technical terms, a process is spontaneous if it transfers free energy from the system to the surroundings. In 1875 J. Willard Gibbs defined the spontaneity of a reaction in terms of its ability to perform "useful work" (in principle or practice). This ability to do work is determined, according to Gibbs, by the change in free energy during a chemical change, ∆ G . This quantity gives the maximum amount of work obtainable from a spontaneous reaction (OR it tells how much work must be done to make a reaction spontaneous). The sign of ∆ G in an indicator of whether a reaction will be spontaneous or not. • when ∆ G < 0, the reaction is spontaneous in the forward direction(it is capable of doing useful work) • when ∆ G = 0, the system is at equilibrium • when ∆ G > 0, the reaction is non-spontaneous (work must come from the surroundings to make the reaction happen) the opposite is true for the reverse reactions…. ∆ H represents the total amount of energy that must be transferred to the surroundings in order to keep the temperature of the system at 298 K ** (25...
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