oDuring this period, Rizal and otherpropagandists or reformists clamored forparity – equality of Filipinos and Spaniardsin all aspects of social life.oThis movement was made possible by thewritings of Filipinos here and abroad whichincludes Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaenawho was the first editor-in-chief of the LaSolidaridad – founded in Spain.oFilipino writers during the 1880s, however,were not rendered the same treatment inthe country compared to Spanish andCreole writers in Manila. It was then agreat deal for the latter that the winningpiece in the literary contest of 1880 waswritten by an Indio.oIt is also notable in the reading that theauthor mentioned about how such eventsof polarity in the space of literature in thecountry at that time, were contributory tothe formation and invention of Philippinenational literature.oRizal and his contemporaries had beenusing their writings to emphasize theirMalay heritage and that their writings besimilarly recognized and given importancelike that of Spanish and Creole writings.oResil Mojares also pointed out the fact thatthere was ambivalence among Filipinowriters at that time. They claimed visibilityin the Spanish empire and assimilation ofthe country as a province of Spain. On theother hand, they resisted againstassimilationintoSpanishimperialliterature – which when given chance inthe course of time will actually lead thePhilippines into an independent nation-state.oHere, the author discussed aboutdifferentiation of national literature fromforeign literature but also laid theimportance of“internationalization”ofnational literature as an imperativeprocess leading to the formation of anational literature.oMojares mentioned that in theearlytwentieth century, there was wide interestin the issue of national identity (“theFilipino Soul”), and in creating theconditions for a national literature toflourish. Hence, the surge of literary andjournalistic publishing, the promotion oflocal languages and the drive for a“national language,” the proliferation ofliterary societies, the dissemination ofnative culture in the schools, the writing ofnational literary histories, the codificationof local poetic practices, and thecanonization of exemplary writers (such asRizal himself).oFor Mojares,nation-formation is acontinuing process, and such a constructas the national literature must remainunstable and unsettled, for it is when it isso that it is most open and creative.oThe issues faced by Rizal in the 19thcentury continue to challenge Filipinowriters at the beginning of the 21stcentury. There needs to be an assertion ofdifferentiation that meaningfully revisesand renews how we Filipinos see ourselvesand how others see us. oIt is also necessary to recognize thedanger of being absorbed and lost in thediscourse of dominant others; and thedanger of being trapped in a discoursethat does not open out into the world.