DSST Fundamentals of counseling

Roe developed a structural theory of career

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Roe developed a structural theory of career development in 1956.
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The structural theory postulated that there were personality differences between people and between members of various occupations and that these personality differences were attributable to the early parent-child relationship. Binet (1857-1911), was a French psychologist who is known for his research and innovation in testing human intelligence. Binet, along with Théodore Simon, devised a series of tests that, with revisions, came into wide use in schools, industries, and the army. According to Abraham Maslow 's hierarchy of needs, at the top of the pyramid is self-actualization. By self-actualization, he meant the need to reach one's unique potential to the fullest. Hierarchy of needs is a theory developed by Abraham Maslow in which more basic needs must be met first before needs of a higher order can come into play. Also called the hierarchy of motives, this hierarchy starts with physiological needs at the bottom, all the way up to self- actualization needs at the top. Needs at the bottom must be fulfilled before needs at the top become a source of motivation--for example, the desire to have a better education (self-actualization) is not likely to motivate you when you are starving to death (physiological needs).   Binet and Simon developed a concise, easy to administer measure of intelligence which became popular by 1916. Performance on the Binet Simon test was the basis for determining IQ (intelligence quotient). Binet believed the scores should only be used to identify children in need of special education and that with proper training even children with low test scores could benefit greatly. Roe’s structural development theory centered on the individual’s parent-child relationship. Roe proposed three main types of parent child relationships: Emotional concentration – overprotection or over demanding environment Avoidance of the child – neglecting or rejecting environment Acceptance of the child – casual or loving environment Roe based her structural theory of career development on Maslow 's hierarchy of needs model. The needs of the child would be reflected in the needs the adult sought in the workplace. If a child felt neglected by his or her parents, then a satisfying career choice would be one that afforded him or her lots of opportunity for praise and recognition. The individual is assumed to turn to work to satisfy needs that were not met in childhood. The most recognizable structural development theory of career development was developed by Holland . Holland’s theory is one of personality development and career choice and it emphasizes that the typology of the individual and the typology of the work environment are the two factors that will determine job success. His approach is considered differential because it focuses on the differences between people.
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