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DSST Fundamentals of counseling

The first theory to explain the process of

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Unformatted text preview: The first theory to explain the process of occupational choice was trait-factor theory. Trait-factor theory is a theory of individual differences and those differences could be analyzed and set into patterns that identified which type of person was suited for which type of work. Personal traits are most often discovered through the use of psychological inventories. The results of these standardized tests are then compared to the general public and a profile is developed indicating that people with the same type of interests are generally successful in certain types of careers. The focus is on identifying one’s own traits and then matching those traits with a suitable career. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is used by many career counselors to develop a profile of how an individual perceives the world and how he or she makes decisions based on that perception. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a common tool in career counseling and that looks at the mental activities of perceiving and judging. A person either perceives information by sensing or intuition and judges activities based on thinking or feeling. The different combinations create different profiles and then those profiles are related to career development work adjustment. Roe developed a structural theory of career development in 1956. The structural theory postulated that there were personality differences between people and between members of various occupations and that these personality differences were attributable to the early parent-child relationship. Binet (1857-1911), was a French psychologist who is known for his research and innovation in testing human intelligence. Binet, along with Théodore Simon, devised a series of tests that, with revisions, came into wide use in schools, industries, and the army. According to Abraham Maslow 's hierarchy of needs, at the top of the pyramid is self-actualization. By self-actualization, he meant the need to reach one's unique potential to the fullest. Hierarchy of needs is a theory developed by Abraham Maslow in which more basic needs must be met first before needs of a higher order can come into play. Also called the hierarchy of motives, this hierarchy starts with physiological needs at the bottom, all the way up to self- actualization needs at the top. Needs at the bottom must be fulfilled before needs at the top become a source of motivation--for example, the desire to have a better education (self-actualization) is not likely to motivate you when you are starving to death (physiological needs). Binet and Simon developed a concise, easy to administer measure of intelligence which became popular by 1916. Performance on the Binet Simon test was the basis for determining IQ (intelligence quotient). Binet believed the scores should only be used to identify children in need of special education and that with proper training even children with low test scores could benefit greatly....
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