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details irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs. Thus, whether high Machs make good employees depends on the type of job. In jobs that require bargaining skills or that offer substantial rewards for winning, high Machs will be productive.
111. Self-monitoring refers to an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. Individuals high in self-monitoring show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behavior to external situational factors. They are highly sensitive to external cues and can behave differently in different situations. High self-monitors are capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona and their private self. Low self-monitors tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation; hence, there is high behavioral consistency between who they are and what they do. Evidence indicates high self-monitors pay closer attention to the behavior of others and are more capable of conforming than are low self-monitors. They also receive better performance ratings, are more likely to emerge as leaders, and show less commitment to their organizations. In addition, high self-monitoring managers tend to be more mobile in their careers, receive more promotions (both internal and cross-organizational), and are more likely to occupy central positions in an organization. 112. People with a proactive personality identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs, compared to others who passively react to situations. Proactives create positive change in their environment, regardless of, or even in spite of, constraints or obstacles. Not surprisingly, they have many desirable behaviors that organizations covet. They are more likely than others to be seen as leaders and to act as change agents. Proactive individuals are more likely to be satisfied with work and help others more with their tasks, largely because they build more relationships with others. Proactives are also more likely to challenge the status quo or voice their displeasure when situations aren't to their liking. If an organization requires people with entrepreneurial initiative, proactives make good candidates; however, they're also more likely to leave an organization to start their own business. As individuals, proactives are more likely than others to achieve career success. They select, create, and influence work situations in their favor. They seek out job and organizational information, develop contacts in high places, engage in career planning, and demonstrate persistence in the face of career obstacles. 113. Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). It consists of two sets of values, each containing 18 individual value items. One set, called terminal values, refers to desirable end-states. These are the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Examples of terminal values are freedom and social recognition. The other set, called instrumental values, refers to preferable modes of behavior, or means of achieving the terminal values. Examples of instrumental values are kindness and goal-orientation. 114. A person with a proactive personality identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and and perseveres