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it also greatly increases costs of production and continues problems of “profitsqueeze”8.2 Human Geography and Climate Change – AgricultureClimate is closely associated with agriculture: it defines the length of the growingseason, average temperatures and the amount of timing of precipitationWarming will likely reduce food production due to increased heat stress. Evenslight increases in temperature will likely reduce crop yieldsChanging weather and precipitation patterns will alter agricultural patternsChanges in weather patterns and warmer average temperatures are likely tomodify pests and diseases relative to crops and livestock, impacting economicactivities and livelihoodsIncreasing temperatures will increase evapotranspiration and lower soil moisturelevelsDeveloping world is far more likely to experience negative impacts from theclimate change – rainfall can be unevenWhile climate change is not expected to reduce overall global food availability, itwill impact crop production, the distribution of food crops and food security andavailabilityIn the face of declining crop yields, many developing countries will becomeincreasingly dependent on food importsChapter 9: The Politics of Territory and SpaceDevelopment of Political Geography:Long established sub fieldArtiste is taken to be the first political geographer because his model of the state isbased on such factors as climate, terrain, and the ratio between population andterritoryGeopolitical Model of the State:Geopolitics: the states power to controls space or territory and shape foreign policy ofindividual states and international political relationsRatzel and Darwin describe the growth of the state was 7 laws:1.Territory of the state grows with expansion of the population having the sameculture2.Territory growth follows other aspects of development3.A state grows by absorbing smaller units4.The frontier is the peripheral organ of the state that reflects the strength andgrowth of the state (not permanent)5.States in the course of their growth seek to absorb politically valuable territory6.Impetus for growth comes to a primitive state from a more highly developedcivilization
7.Trend towards territorial growth is contagious and increases in the process oftransmissionRatzel portrays the state as behaving like a biological organism; its growth and changeare seen as natural and inevitableBoundaries:Important because they allow territoriality to be defined and enforces and becausethey allow conflict and competition to be managed and channeledImportant element in place makingNormally inclusionary- constructed in order to regulate and control specific sets ofpeople and resourcesCan also be exclusionary- fulfills the function of controlling people and resourcesEstablished in many different ways; different degrees of permeabilityExamples on p 393Territory: delimited area over which a state exercises control and that is recognized byother states

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Term
Fall
Professor
SeanDoherty

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