Psych 410 exam 2 study guide.docx

G within 2 is accurate enough in general 29 specific

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prevalence rates of the more specific diagnoses (e.g., within 2% is accurate enough). In general = 29% Specific phobias = 12.5% Social anxiety = 12.1% Generalized anxiety disorder = 5.7% Panic disorder = 4.7% Obsessive-compulsive disorder = 1.6% PTSD = 6.8% You should understand how classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and social learning are related to the development of anxiety disorders. Anxiety/fear response creates a negative state, stimulus-response association is strengthened by co- occurrence of stimulus and anxiety Classical conditioning and/or social learning help form the stimulus-response association Avoiding the stimulus decreases anxiety/fear, which reinforces the avoidance behavior (negative reinforcement) Operant conditioning sustains the response (negative reinforcement) Classical conditioning: stimulus is associated with fear or discomfort Operant conditioning: when faced with the stimulus, avoidance relieves the fear or discomfort Social learning of anxiety/fear Anxious parents or other “models” Modeling of phobic responses The nurturing/protecting trap Beliefs about the world, Beliefs about the self, Coping skills You should recognize the factors that create individual differences in learning fears, including biological/genetic, learning, and cognitive factors. biological/genetic = biologically-prepared stimuli, high emotionality/neuroticism, individual differences in fear extinction, temperament, personality, limbic system function, neurotransmitter systems learning = classical conditioning, avoidant coping (operant conditioning), schemas related to lack of control/coping ability You should be familiar with the neurotransmitter systems implicated in anxiety disorders, and the major types of medications used for biological treatments. GABA treated with Benzodiazepines (Valium)- short-term for acute anxiety attacks Serotonin treated with novel anti-anxiety drugs (Buspar) Serotonin treated with Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs, Prozac, Zoloft) 5
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Drugs for anxiety treatment don’t work as well as behavioral therapy You should be able to recognize the names of the major brain structures involved in the stress response system. Temporal lobe, amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate cortex (limbic cortex) You should recognize the key psychological approaches to treating each anxiety disorder (specific behavioral and/or cognitive techniques). Anxiety Systematic desensitization Break the learning cycle through repeated, safe exposure to the feared stimulus (counterconditioning) “kind” ways of supporting people during exposure Medications, relaxation training, cognitive therapy to control thoughts Social Anxiety Cognitive therapy with guided exposures (CT) SSRI-type medications Medications that change fear conditioning Panic Disorder Exposure to physical panic symptoms to de-condition the reaction (panic provocation procedures) Behavioral relaxation skills, cognitive restructuring, or medications Cognitive-behavioral therapy
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