Men and women are equally like to feel love and need attachment But they differ

Men and women are equally like to feel love and need

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Men and women are equally like to feel love and need attachment But they differ, on average, in: o How they express feeling of love and how they define intimacy These gender differences reflect gender roles Gender roles are in turn shaped by social, economic, and cultural forces (which change over time) Meta-analysis on changes in sexual behaviour and attitudes: Study Wells and Tweng: o Examined 530 studies (total N of 269,469) conducted between 1943 and 1999, addressing changes over time in young peoples: Sexual activity Results: o Females average increased o Males stayed the same Average age at first intercourse Results o increased Number of sexual partners Guilt about sex Attitudes toward premarital sex Increased over time o Greater percentage of young people engaging in oral sex: Pre-1970 about 45-50% (higher for males) Post 1990 about 70% o Average number of partners: No significant change over the years o Learning What’s Attractive: People party learn from their culture: What is “supposed” to be attractive Which part of the body and what activities are erotic/repulsive Whether or not certain romantic/sexual behaviours are appealing Achievement Motivation: o This section: Describes features of successful goal setting Distinguish between different kind of goals and motivation conflicts Describe how working conditions affect motives to achieve o Conditions for successful goal setting: A goal is most likely to improve motivation and performance when three conditions are met: Specificity Challenging (but achievable)
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Framed in terms of getting what you want (rather than avoiding what you do want) Approach Goals desired outcomes and experiences Avoidance Goals avoiding unpleasant experiences Why? Approach goals help you focus on what you can ACTIVELY do (not what you need to avoid), and on the intrinsic pleasure of achieving goals o Different types of goals depend on whether you set: Mastery Goals in which the focus is on learning the task well Performance goals in which the focus is on doing well for OTHERs People who set performance goals ten to get discouraged and give up more easily o Other contributors to success: Self-Control: The ability to regulate attention, emotion, and behaviour in the presence of temptation Ability to forego smaller, sooner rewards to pursue larger, later rewards This can be practiced Self-Efficacy: The feeling that one can be effective in achieving goals Acquired through experience in mastering new skills, overcoming obstacles, and learning from failures Can be developed Expectations: Positive versus negative o Optimism and pessimism Can create self-fulfilling prophecies of success or failure – vicious circle Example: o Children given unsolvable math problems were after unable to solve easy ones o External factors that can effect work motivation:
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