Men and women are equally like to feel love and need attachmentBut they differ, on average, in:oHow they express feeling of love and how they define intimacyThese gender differences reflect gender rolesGender roles are in turn shaped by social, economic, and cultural forces (which change over time)Meta-analysis on changes in sexual behaviour and attitudes:Study Wells and Tweng:oExamined 530 studies (total N of 269,469) conducted between 1943 and 1999, addressing changes over time in young peoples:Sexual activityResults:oFemales average increasedoMales stayed the sameAverage age at first intercourseResultsoincreasedNumber of sexual partnersGuilt about sexAttitudes toward premarital sexIncreased over timeoGreater percentage of young people engaging in oral sex:Pre-1970 about 45-50% (higher for males)Post 1990 about 70%oAverage number of partners:No significant change over the yearsoLearning What’s Attractive:People party learn from their culture:What is “supposed” to be attractiveWhich part of the body and what activities are erotic/repulsiveWhether or not certain romantic/sexual behaviours are appealingAchievement Motivation:oThis section:Describes features of successful goal settingDistinguish between different kind of goals and motivation conflictsDescribe how working conditions affect motives to achieveoConditions for successful goal setting:A goal is most likely to improve motivation and performance when three conditions are met:SpecificityChallenging (but achievable)
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Framed in terms of getting what you want (rather than avoidingwhat you do want)Approach Goals desired outcomes and experiencesAvoidance Goals avoiding unpleasant experiencesWhy?Approach goals help you focus on what you can ACTIVELY do (not what you need to avoid), and on the intrinsic pleasure of achieving goalsoDifferent types of goals depend on whether you set:Mastery Goals in which the focus is on learning the task wellPerformance goals in which the focus is on doing well for OTHERsPeople who set performance goals ten to get discouraged and give up more easilyoOther contributors to success:Self-Control:The ability to regulate attention, emotion, and behaviour in the presence of temptationAbility to forego smaller, sooner rewards to pursue larger, later rewardsThis can be practicedSelf-Efficacy:The feeling that one can be effective in achieving goalsAcquired through experience in mastering new skills, overcoming obstacles, and learning from failuresCan be developedExpectations:Positive versus negativeoOptimism and pessimismCan create self-fulfilling prophecies of success or failure – vicious circleExample:oChildren given unsolvable math problems were after unable to solve easy onesoExternal factors that can effect work motivation:
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