B hypomagnesemia c hypokalemia d impotence ans is a

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B) HYPOMAGNESEMIA C) HYPOKALEMIA D) IMPOTENCE ANS. IS ‘A’ I.E., BROADCAST IN URINE; ‘D’ I.E., IMPOTENCE; ‘C’ I.E., HYPOKALEMIA. SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS OF AZOTEMIA WHEN NEARING END STAGE DISEASE. HYPERTENSION IN MAJORITY ISOTHENURIA AND BROAD CASTS IN URINARY SEDIMENT ARE COMMON. BILATERAL SMALL KIDNEYS IN USG ARE DIAGNOSTIC. 84
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Q) DECREASE IN GFR IS APPARENT IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STAGES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE – (NBE/DNB PATTERN) A) STAGE I B) STAGE II C) STAGE III D) STAGE IV 85
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Q) DECREASE IN GFR IS APPARENT IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STAGES OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE – (NBE/DNB PATTERN) A) STAGE I B) STAGE II C) STAGE III D) STAGE IV ANS. IS ‘B’ I.E., STAGE II KIDNEY DAMAGE WITH MILD DECREASE IN GFR IS CLASSIFIED AS STAGE II OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE. 87
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Q) AZOTEMIA OCCURS WHEN - (NEET/DNB PATTERN) A) GFR 50% OF NORMAL B) GFR 80% OF NORMAL C) GFR 20% - 50% OF NORMAL D) GFR 25% OF NORMAL ANS. IS ‘C’ I.E., GFR 20% - 50% OF NORMAL [REF: ROBBIN’S 8,H/E P. 906-907] 88
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Q) SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF A RENAL FAILURE FIRST APPEAR WHEN RENAL FUNCTION DETERIORATES BY MORE THAN - (NBE/DNB PATTERN) A) 20% B) 40% C) 60% D) 80% ANS. IS ‘C’ I.E., >60% [REF: FLUID ELECTROLYTES WITH CLINICAL APPLICATIONS’ 7,H (CENGAGE LEARNING) 2004] 89
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OVERT SYMPTOMS OF RENAL FAILURE BECOME EVIDENT WHEN RENAL FUNCTION DETERIORATES BY MORE THAN - (NBE/DNB PATTERN) A) 40-50% B) 50-60% C) 70-80% D) >90% ANS. IS ‘C’ I.E., 70-80% 90
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CRF WITH ANEMIA BEST TREATMENT – (NEET/DNB) A) IRON B) ERYTHROPOIETIN C) BLOOD TRANSFUSION D) FOLIC ACID 91
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THE PRIMARY THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR ANEMIA OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE ARE:- • RED BLOOD CELL TRANSFUSIONS ERYTHROPOIETIN STIMULATING AGENTS ANDROGEN (TO A MUCH LESSER DEGREE) 92
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THE ERYTHROPOIETIN DEFICIENCY CAN BE CORRECTED BY THE EXOGENOUS ADMINISTRATION OF ERYTHROPOIETIN STIMULATING AGENTS. TWO SUCH AGENTS AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES - EPOETIN ALFA (RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN) - DARBEPOETIN ALFA 93
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CRF WITH ANEMIA BEST TREATMENT – (NEET/DNB) A) IRON B) ERYTHROPOIETIN C) BLOOD TRANSFUSION D) FOLIC ACID ANS. IS ‘B’ I.E., ERYTHROPOIETIN [REF: HARRISON 18'H/EP. 2316] CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE LEADS TO NORMOCYTIC NORMOCHRONIC ANEMIA. 94
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NEPHROTIC SYNDROME ALL ARE TRUE OF NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, EXCEPT (AI 2K) A) RBC CASTS IN URINE B) HYPO-PROTEINEMIA C) OEDEMA D) HYPERLIPIDEMIA 95
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NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IS A CLINICAL COMPLEX CHARACTERIZED BY A NUMBER OF RENAL AND EXTRARENAL FEATURES, THE MOST PROMINENT OF WHICH ARE – - PROTEINURIA > 3.5G/1.73 M2 PER 24 HOUR - HYPOALBUMINEMIA - EDEMA - HYPERLIPIDEMIA, LIPIDURIA AND HYPERCOAGULABILITY. 96
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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF NEPHROTIC SYNDROME:- THE KEY COMPONENT OF NEPHROTIC SYNDROME IS PROTEINURIA WHICH RESULTS FROM ALTERED PERMEABILITY OF THE GLOMERULAR FILTRATION BARRIER FOR PROTEINS.
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