following are the essentials of a leadership : 1. Self-confidence. They have complete confidence in their judgement and ability. 2. A Vision. This is an idealized goal that proposes a future better than the status quo. The greater the disparity between this idealised goal and the status quo, the more likely that followers will attribute extraordinary vision to the leader. 3. Ability to Articulate the Vision. They are able to clarify and state the vision in terms that are understandable to others. This articulation demonstrates an understanding of the flower’s needs and, hence, acts as a motivating force. 4. Strong Convictions About the Vision. Charismatic leaders are perceived as being strongly committed, and willing to take on high personal risk, incurs high costs, and engage in self- sacrifice to achieve their vision. 5. Behaviour that is Out of the Ordinary. Those with charisma engage in behaviour that is perceived as being novel, unconventional, and counter to norms. When successful, these behaviours evoke surprise and admiration in followers. 6. Perceived as Being a Change Agent. Charismatic leaders are perceived as agents of radical change rather than as caretakers of the status quo. 7. Environment Sensitivity. These leaders are able to make realistic assessment of the environmental constraints and resources needed to bring about change.
140 Organisation Behaviour—Text and Cases 7.7 APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP There may be a number of generally accepted criteria for determining good leadership, like whether the group follows the leader’s orders without question, whether the work group has high morale, whether the people in the group respects the leader. At the same time, it is extremely difficult to have objective measures of leadership. One method of objective measurement is to study the productivity of a team or a work group. This method is based upon the premise that productivity is a byproduct or a result of good leadership. The behaviour approach to the study of leadership regards leadership as behavioural, situational, or related to the interaction of the leader and the group. It sites that the best way to study and to define leadership is in terms of what leaders do rather than in terms of what traits they possess. In this approach, the critical incidents of good and bad leadership behaviour are collected. This is usually done by interviewing the persons concerned. “Each incident is then rated on a scale by experts on the basis of judging as to how “good” or how “bad” each behaviour is. On the basis of this information a checklist type questionnaire is developed. This questionnaire can then be used to check off which of these behaviours have been exhibited by each leader or supervision. A leadership “score” can then be computed by using the medium scale value, of the behaviours, which have been checked.
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